Worldwide except South America, and everywhere confined to fresh waters. Frequently the shells of ampulariids and viviparids are very similar. The Applesnails of Florida (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia: Pilidae). Share on Facebook. 1991. The gangly, brown-and-white Limpkin looks a bit like a giant rail or perhaps a young night-heron. Large snails. Limpkins are tropical wetland birds whose range reaches into Florida. A small portion, however, is omnivorous. Buy live snails wholesale The farm «Snails House» located its fields in ecologically clean area. Nesting. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. Other Resources: Pomacea paludosa (The apple snail website) Collecting Florida applesnails (Pomacea paludosa) from wetland habitats using funnel traps. Figure 8. Discovered again in late 2011, it threatens to cause considerable plant damage due to its large size and broad dietary habits. This species lays green egg masses. Key to the applesnails of Florida. Florida wildlife and water managers are worried about an invasive snail that is wreaking havoc on the state's billion-dollar effort to remove chemicals from the fragile Everglades. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made. Live field samples should be divided into two groups, one to be preserved for shells, the other to be preserved for anatomical specimens. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida, 94 pp. Purchasers often do not realize they can grow very large very quickly. Ghesquiere S. (2011). To ship any of these species without a permit is a violation of U.S. federal law. Florida applesnail, Pomacea paludosa (Say, 1829). Apple Snails are often refered to as "Blue Mystery Snails" in the pet store, with little regard or information about their species. Mating and egg laying for both island and Florida applesnails start in March, and can continue through October. 94 p. 105-170 species. The Applesnails of Florida (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia: Pilidae). FDACS-DPI. Many snails are hermaphrodites but apple snails are not. It is globose in shape, body whorls are wide, spire is depressed, and the aperature is narrowly oval (Burch 1982). Benson, A.J., and C.R. The introduced island applesnail primarily eats rooted aquatic vegetation, while the native Florida applesnail feeds heavily on periphyton, a complex mixture of algae, cyanobacteria, heterotrophic microbes, and detritus attached to submerged surfaces in most aquatic ecosystems. The fact that these animals are long-lived is especially important when you buy a snail for your child. Stable, clean substrates at the bottom of the water are ideal habitats for snails. It takes territory of 60 ha. They rapidly reproduce and can become a nuisance in the aquarium. Purple Mystery Snails For Sale. They range in color from deep blue to gold and even striped. My Mystery snails live from 2 plus years. - Most species: apple snails, mystery snails. Mystery/apple snails will do an excellent job of cleaning the aquarium glass for you, as they love all kinds of algae. Applesnails are larger than most freshwater snails and can be separated from other freshwater species by their oval shell which has the umbilicus (the axially aligned, hollow, cone-shaped space within the whorls of a coiled mollusc shell) of the shell perforated or broadly open. May reach 6 inches in shell height and is considered the largest snail on earth (Florida DOACS, 2002). Invasive apple snails, which produce colonies of bright pink eggs, consume large quantities of vegetation, which threatens food sources for native special of fish, shrimp and crawfish. The gangly, brown-and-white Limpkin looks a bit like a giant rail or perhaps a young night-heron. They were in bigger aquariums and I monitored the water levels for ammonia, nitrite, and nitrates. Photograph by Rawlings et al. Species. Their apple-snail diet is a major factor that determines where limpkins live, which could explain the recent increase of populations in some areas of Florida. To put it more simply, apple snails have unique anatomical adaptations which allows them to be amphibious – they can live both on land and in water. The genera Asolene, Felipponea, Marisa, andPomaceaare the New World genera (South America, Central America, the West Indies and the Southern U.S.A.), while the generaAfropomus, LanistesandSauleaare found in Africa. Photograph by Bill Frank, http://www.jacksonvilleshells.org. Their apple-snail diet is a major factor that determines where limpkins live, which could explain the recent increase of populations in some areas of Florida. Pomacea maculata is now found in Alabama, Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina and Texas. You have probably seen some in your garden or on the surface of a wall, defying gravity. (2006). Also rarely eat small snails, rodents, crabs. Based on fossil finds, it is a native snail that has existed in Florida since the Pliocene. Photograph by Bill Frank, http://www.jacksonvilleshells.org. A Field Guide to Molluscan Spawn, II. Ampullariidae, common name the apple snails, is a family of large freshwater snails, aquatic gastropod mollusks with a gill and an operculum.This family is in the superfamily Ampullarioidea and is the type family of that superfamily.. Planorbella trivolvis, an air-breathing ramshorn snail. It is also native to Cuba and Hispaniola (FFWCC 2006). Entomology Circular 388. Plants that are dying are often a good meal for them, and they also eat sand or soil when seeking for calcium to get a thicker shell. Apple snails have the potential to grow fairly large, at least 1 inch in diameter. As such, they are best suited to large aquariums where they have a wide area to graze. The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. Jacksonville Shell Club. Growth and demography of. It is also believed that redear sunfish and certain ducks will consume smaller immature snails (FFWCC 2006). If adverse conditions occur, applesnails can burrow into sediments, seal the entrance to their shells with the operculum, and remain in this condition for several months. Of the four species of Applesnails in Florida, only the Florida Applesnail is a native species, while the other three species are introduced. It has been reported from California and Hawaii (USGS 2010). There are four species of Pomacea in Florida, one of which is native and considered beneficial (Capinera and White 2011). The congener P. canaliculata has been introduced to Hawaii and various countries in Southeast Asia where … Apple snails live in water. Scale bar = 5 cm. Apple snails live in water. POMACEA CANALICULATA, P. BRIDGESI, P. PALUDOSA, AND PILA CONICA (Apple Snails) Description: Attain sizes slightly smaller than golfballs, with shell colors ranging from yellow to brown Native Range: South America Introduction: Initially introduced as food crops but aquarium release may also be responsible for invasion. They are brown in color and have a striped pattern. They are restricted to tropical and semi-tropical regions by their need for high humidity and warm temperatures. How do snails cope with the winter freeze? Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. Egg clutches are white in color. Being in a natural habitat, our snails have all the conditions for normal growth and successful development. It is also native to Cuba and Hispaniola (FFWC… Snails are incredible animals to be easy cared as your pets. Apple snails, aquarium snails, mystery snails, aquatic snails, Ramshorn, Pomacea and Marisa on sale at AquariumFish.net, a retail Tropical Fish store, where you can shop online for a snail fun. P. canaliculata: the channeled apple snail. Under normal conditions, Florida birds live almost entirely on large apple snails (genus Pomacea). They live in captivity from 5 till 10 years (maximum recorded age is 35 years!). They are abundant and a popular meal for limpkins. Most shells are spirally coiled while some sea snails, commonly called the impetus, have a conical shell. Photograph by Jeffrey Lotz, DPI. For queries involving fish, please contact Matthew Neilson. Spike-topped applesnail, Pomacea diffusa Blume, 1957. They live in captivity from 5 till 10 years (maximum recorded age is 35 years!). Its long bill is bent and twisted at the tip, an adaptation for removing snails from the shell. apple snails are single sex snails Incorrect. It has a more prominent apex than the Florida apple snail, P. paludosa. Sea snails are hard to be preyed because of their hard-protective tank. The four exotic, nonindigenous Pomacea apple snail species are the island apple snail, channeled apple snail, spike-topped apple snail, and the titan apple snail. Helix pomatia, also known as the Roman snail, Burgundy snail, edible snail or escargot, is a species of large, edible, air-breathing land snail.The average size of the snail is from 1 to 2 inch (or from 25 to 50mm). Winner BA. Egg masses with large, white eggs were laid by the native Florida applesnail and should be left undisturbed, as they do not pose a threat and are the principal food of the Everglades kite. For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson. Collecting Florida applesnails (Pomacea paludosa) from wetland habitats using funnel traps. Photograph by Jeffrey Lotz, DPI. 10 MALAYSIAN TRUMPET SNAILS ALGAE EATERS LIVE FRESHWATER AQUARIUM SNAILS MTS. However, it is the channeled applesnail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1828), that causes concern to farmers. Although, the USGS map (2010) shows it in northeastern Florida, recent molecular data proved that this population was not Pomacea canaliculata (Capinera and White 2011). These snails can grow up to 45 mm across the shell, and together with their rich flavour the Helix pomatia species is very popular with foodies all over the world. The same can’t be said for fish though – they should absolutely never be kept with any loaches, puffer fish or any of the larger cichlids. Apple snails are not called apple snails because they eat apples. † Populations may not be currently present. Helix pomatia, also known as the Roman snail, Burgundy snail, edible snail or escargot, is a species of large, edible, air-breathing land snail.The average size of the snail is from 1 to 2 inch (or from 25 to 50mm). Common throughout the Florida peninsula up to the Suwannee River Drainage, and sporadically west from the Suwannee into the panhandle to the Choctawhatchee River Drainage and north into Georgia in to the Flint and Ocmulgee River Drainages (Thompson 1984); Cuba; Hispanola (Dundee 1974). Why are snails the best pets? They are called Apple Snails because of their size. Helix pomatia (Roman snail, Apple snail, Escargot de Bourgogne/Burgundy snail, Gros blanc) can be found across Europe and USA. Fortunately, this species has not been documented from Florida. Figure 5. So snails use their multi-purpose mucus to literally close the door on winter. Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. Related snails are found in tropical wetlands around the globe, and in fact another species has been introduced in Florida … Channeled applesnail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1819), showing the deep groove or channel giving it its name. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. Stange LA. This is not the first time South Florida has had to deal with the giant African land snail. These Snails will live about 12 to 16 months when kept in water at a temperature of 82 degrees F. At a … A sea snail has a soft body that is usually protected by a shell. Effective 5 April 2006, USDA-APHIS requires permits for importation or interstate shipment of all marine and freshwater snails. Ampullariids hav… The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. You can scrape off the egg masses and allow them to fall into the water since inundated eggs will not hatch. Some time later the snails spread to Hawaii, South-West Asia and even Florida. That’s one year of activity. Ampullariidae, common name the apple snails, is a family of large freshwater snails, aquatic gastropod mollusks with a gill and an operculum.This family is in the superfamily Ampullarioidea and is the type family of that superfamily.. This species is the largest freshwater gastropod native to North America (Burch 1982). Apple Snails are a tropical freshwater species of aquarium snail. They prefer water temperatures between 18°-28° Celsius, or 65°-82° Fahrenheit. About; Buy Snails; Contact; Mystery Snail Egg Development; Search for: For Sale . Nesting. It is easily distinguished from other applesnails in Florida by the low, strongly rounded shell spike, and measures about 40–70 mm (Capinera and White 2011). Never release applesnails from aquaria into the wild (FFWCC 2006). University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida, 94 pp. Snails feed on a variety of food found in their natural habitat. The island applesnail, Pomacea insularum, appears nearly identical. 2017). Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWCC). The shell characters given above for separating the families apply only to Florida species. The freshwater gastropods of North America. Figure 4. All are tropical/subtropical species in the genus Pomacea, and are not known to withstand water temperatures below 10°C (FFWCC 2006). Search. They are very common and available at almost all LFS. The family contains many genera and numerous species in South America, Central America, Mexico, Africa, and Southeast Asia. The shell opening or aperture is large and oval or round and covered by a bony operculum with concentric rings that can be retracted into the aperture. Of the four species of applesnails in Florida, only the Florida applesnail is a native species, while the other three species are introduced. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The freshwater snails of Florida: a manual for identification. Identification based on shell shape is very difficult. Collections have been made in Alabama and Mississippi. Figure 6. Internet address: http://www.fwgna.org. The United States has four native genera of Bulimulidae: Rhabdotus, Drymaeus, Orthalicus, and Liguus. Its long bill is bent and twisted at the tip, an adaptation for removing snails from the shell. A much more complete key for all the freshwater snails of Florida is available online through the Florida Museum of Natural History at http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/malacology/fl-snail/snails1.htm. Applesnail ( Pomacea canaliculata, Pomacea insularum) DESCRIPTION: The shell of the channeled applesnail (Pomacea canaliculata) varies from 1.5 - 2.3 inches wide and 1.75 - 3 inches high.The shell has 5 to 6 whorls which are separated by a deep, indented suture, hence the species name 'canaliculata' or 'channeled'. Eating snails dates all the way back to prehistoric times and in Roman times eating snails was perceived as a privilege reserved for the elite. Apple snails are native to South America where they live from Argentina northwards to the Amazon basin. They are frequently large, up to 70 mm long, but tend to be smaller in colder areas. 5 years ago. The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. It occurs as far west as the Choctawhatchee River. This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. Stange LA. in the continental U.S. a) Pomacea haustrum, titan applesnail; b) Pomacea diffusa, spike-topped applesnail; c) Pomacea canaliculata, channeled applesnail; d) Pomacea paludosa, Florida applesnail; e) Pomacea maculata, island applesnail. The Island Applesnail was probably released in south Florida in the early 1980s by persons with the tropical pet industry, and rapidly expanded throughout the state. Snails make a dried lid of slime over the shell mouth, which seals in the snail for several months. Gainesville, Florida. Both the island and channeled applesnails are potential threats to Florida's aquatic ecosystems. Adult island applesnail, Pomacea maculata (Perry, 1810). They get their name from the fact that one species of apple snails can grow to be the size of an apple. Shell of the titan applesnail, Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856). Apple Snails are often refered to as "Blue Mystery Snails" in the pet store, with little regard or information about their species. It takes territory of 60 ha. Egg masses of introduced and native Pomacea spp. Get it as soon as Thu, Nov 19. (FFWCC 2006, USGS 2009a). 1966. Purchasers often do not realize they can grow very large very quickly. Came from the river Amazon where it inhabits all along the river. Dundee, D. S. 1974. Snails are mollusks belonging to the class Gastropoda, whose members, slugs and snails make up 80 percent of all mollusks. Channeled applesnail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1819). The average age of the snail is from 1 to 3 years old. Under normal conditions, Florida birds live almost entirely on large apple snails (genus Pomacea). However, there are a few things that are important for them to thrive: answer #2. Applesnails lay grape-like clusters of white, green, or pink to red eggs on solid objects above the water line, and this is the quickest way to determine if applesnails are present. Viviparidae, medium to large snails, live-bearing, commonly referred to as "mystery snails". 4.4 out of 5 stars 171. Medium- to large-sized tropical freshwater snails. They range in color from deep blue to gold and even striped. More food means more birds. Slugs and snails have natural enemies. Figure 3. 99 ($12.99/Count) FREE Shipping. An egg mass may contain over 2000 eggs (Barnes et al., 2008). Other Resources: Pomacea paludosa (The apple snail website) Collecting Florida applesnails (Pomacea paludosa) from wetland habitats using funnel traps. Entomology Circular. Photograph by Bill Frank, http://www.jacksonvilleshells.org. Their large size helps remove large amounts on rotting debris and algae. Florida is home to several species of Pomacea apple snails including one native species, the Florida apple snail, and four exotics native to South America. A bizarre video shows millions of snails taking over a popular beach in St. Petersburg Florida. They are found throughout the world in various habitats, ranging from ephemeral pools to the largest lakes, and from small seeps and springs to major rivers. Apple snails are some of the largest snails in the world, and one of the leading snails used in cooking. Nautilus 79(3):105. Photograph by Bill Frank, http://www.jacksonvilleshells.org. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/malacology/fl-snail/snails1.htm, Terrestrial snails affecting plants in Florida, An Identification Manual for the Freshwater Snails of Florida, Estebenet AL, Cazzaniga NJ. $12.99 $ 12. (FFWCC 2006, USGS 2009b). Pomacea insularum, an apple snail. Usually nests in loose colonies. It is the principal food of the Everglades kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus Ridgway, and should be considered beneficial. Apple snails in the genus Pomacea (family Ampullariidae) span the aquatic-terrestrial interface ( Fig. 1998. Usually nests in loose colonies. Limpkins are tropical wetland birds whose range reaches into Florida. Pomacea diffusa Blume, 1957, the spike-topped applesnail, is a Brazilian species that was introduced into southern Florida, probably in the 1950s. Photograph by Luis Ruiz Berti. However, all native Florida bulimulids are arboreal. Tree snails are included in several families, but the Bulimulidae and the Pupillidae are the only two repre… A sea snail does not have teeth; its mouth consists of a hard ribbon instead of teeth. Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856), the titan applesnail, is rare and is found only in southeastern Florida (FFWCC 2006, USGS 2007). $55.00 $ 55. Snug in crannies and crevices, the snails in our garden are well-equipped to sleep through winter behind a door of slime . This species was originally thought to be the channeled applesnail. Scrape the snail foot meat out from the bottom of the shell. However, they are not called apple snails because they eat apples. Collections have been made in Alabama, Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Oklahoma and South Carolina (USGS 2006). Apple snails (Pomacea maculata) can grow to up to six inches high—about the size of a baseball or human fist—although a size of approximately 1.5 inches is more common. Advantages of Apple Snails. Notice the operculum almost sealing the entrance to the shell in the topmost snail. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. While elimination of applesnails by chemical means has been attempted, no effective chemical recommendation has been developed. Golden Apple Snails are excellent scavengers in large tanks with minimal plants. Sterkiana 55:1-37. One species occurs naturally in Florida, and three others have been introduced. The genera Asolene, Felipponea, Marisa, andPomaceaare the New World genera (South America, Central America, the West Indies and the Southern U.S.A.), while the generaAfropomus, LanistesandSauleaare found in Africa. Morningstar, 2020, The freshwater snails of Florida: a manual for identification, US Fish and Wildlife Service Ecological Risk Screening Summary for. Snails are incredible animals to be easy cared as your pets. They prefer water temperatures between 18°-28° Celsius, or 65°-82° Fahrenheit. The females emerge from the water, usually at night, to lay white or bright pink egg masses on stable substrates such as tree trunks, pilings, seawalls, or even plant stems. It is not known whether these two species have similar feeding preferences (FFWCC 2006). However, only pink egg masses should be scraped or removed. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data. They like to live in lakes, ponds and swamps. Table 1. I have 10 small pea size purple mystery snails for sale. Golden apple snails are completely peaceful, and will never bother any fish tank-mates. Florida applesnails, Pomacea paludosa (Say, 1829). Of the four species of applesnails in Florida, only the Florida applesnail is a native species, while the other three species are introduced. Accessed [12/2/2020]. Size cannot be used either, as food availability affects size (They generally grow to about 10 cm). Freshwater snails are gastropod mollusks which live in fresh water. Apple snails of the genus Pomacea have been popular aquarium inhabitants for decades but were recently banned from the European trade following a request from Spanish authorities due to one species, P. insularum, becoming established in certain wetlands following release by aquarists.. Do not use tap water since copper ions from the plumbing system may contaminate the tap water and kill the snails prematurely. This species is able to store air in it's shell cavity in order to float on the water surface to reach vegetation (Dillon, R. T., Jr. and colleagues 2018). Live Freshwater … Also rarely eat small snails, rodents, crabs. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Egg mass of the spike-topped applesnail, Pomacea diffusa Blume, 1957. After being eradicated from Florida in the last century, Florida is once again faced with an infestation of the giant African land snail in the Miami area. Photograph by Barbara Claiborne. There are many different families. Dillon, R. T., Jr. and colleagues 2018. It is also present in parts of central and north-central Florida. Unlike the other species described below, P. diffusa generally do not harm live plants if well fed. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, Volume 20, Issue 1 (March 2001): 84–95. Freshwater snails can live in any aquatic habitat. Thompson FG. True apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata) can grow up to 5" in Dia. They are indeed male and female apple snails. Apple snails. You will be able to see where they’ve been working by the “munching tracks” they leave in their wake. Ampullariidae, an exclusively freshwater family that is largely tropical and includes the large "apple snails" kept in aquaria. Figure 10. So how long do apple snails live? These aquarium snails are sometimes dumped into isolated bodies of water and have been recovered as far north as Alachua County, Florida (Thompson 1984). August 26, 2020 floridamysterysnails Leave a comment. Pomacea maculata was probably released in southern Florida in the early 1980s by persons with the tropical pet industry, and rapidly expanded throughout the state. The Snail Kite is a small raptor which specializes in a diet of snails—particularly the native Florida Apple Snail. Thetoad is the most important, but snakes, several species of ground beetles and their larvae, wild birds, and ducks will also eat slugs and snails. Barriers are an effective way to get rid of slugs and snails. 1992. Figure 11. FDACS-DPI. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. Also many fish will try to nip at the tentacles of the apple snails, but that should not be a problem, as the apple snails will adapt quickly by keeping their tentacles under their shell. Snail by nature is very rubbery, but with proper cooking, you can turn it into a delicate dish that melts in your mouth. The most effective management methods are hand or mechanical removal of snails and egg masses. The other applesnails found in Florida seem not to be spreading or causing injury. Apple snails can live together with most fish without problem, but snail eating fish species should be avoided (obvious). They are common in South Florida's wetlands, where they feed mostly on apple snails (photo at … Florida Mystery Snails. Pomacea paludosa (Say, 1829), the Florida applesnail, occurs throughout peninsular Florida (Thompson 1984). Based on fossil finds, it is a native snail that has existed in Florida since the Pliocene. The entire length of the beach is covered in what looks like black rocks, but are in fact cerith snails. … Female apple snails and male apple snails? ?Apple Snails will breed in almost all conditions. Eggs are probably those of the island applesnail, Pomacea maculata (Perry, 1810). That’s one year of activity. In applesnails, the spire of the shell can be conspicuous, but is much less than the height of the aperture. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Pomacea paludosa are found here. Snails are practically everywhere. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information. Aquatic snails for sale in North Central Florida. Permits are not being issued for members of the genus Pomacea, with the exception of the spike-topped applesnail, Pomacea diffusa (FFWCC 2006). Pomacea maculata (Perry, 1810), the island applesnail, is the most common introduced species. Figure 7. The only terrestrial predator that has been observed capturing and eating apple snails is raccoon (Procyon lotor) (Carter et al. Besides, they are considered to be herbivorous since most of them feed on sea plants. The fact that these animals are long-lived is … They live in vineyards, gardens, valleys and forested mountains up to 2000 metres (6600 feet). University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida, 94 pp. Apple snails are tropical and sub-tropical freshwater snails from the family Ampullariidae(sometimes referred to as Pilidae).The Ampullariidae are divided in several genera. Photograph by Bill Frank, http://www.jacksonvilleshells.org. As drought and habitat loss reduced the number of snails, the bird’s population declined to less than 1,000: it was listed as an endangered species. Seek out ideal conditions. Posch H., Garr A. L. & Reynolds E. (2013). Encourage these predators to live in your garden to maintain a natural balance. Mystery snails are surprisingly hardy and don’t need an advanced hobbyist to keep them alive and well. Island apple snail is a valid common name for the species, but Armstrong says he now refers to the species in Alabama as the maculata apple snail for specificity. A 1 inch diameter shell is common size for adult Apple Snails. Privately published, North Palm Beach. Pomacea paludosa (Say 1829) Florida applesnail. The most popular edible snail species are Helix pomatia, also known as the Roman snail, Burgundy snail or Apple snail, and Helix aspersa. Color may not be used to identify the species as it varies from yellow and green to brown with or without dark spiral bands. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†.