The first stop on his flight is Tarsus, where Pericles YES NO . But in Pericles, the incest at the start is undone by the recognition at the end. Pericles, the prince of Tyre, wants her hand in marriage. However, Pericles has fled the city in disgust. After many men fail, the young Prince Pericles of Tyre guesses the truth. Pericles, Prince of Tyre, wishes to marry the daughter of Antiochus, King of Antioch. Guernica is a non-profit magazine dedicated to global art and politics, published online since 2004. Subsequent quarto printings appeared in 1611, 1619, 1630, and 1635; it was one of Shakespeare's most popular plays in his own historical era. Fail the riddle, die. riddle, Pericles is in the double-bind that for Freud characterizes the human condition—either guilty of incest, or if not, then plagued with guilty desire. Nunn…plays fast and loose with Shakespeare’s script, but to what end? Right off the bat, Pericles looks and sounds like a hero straight out of a fairy tale, as he declares that he "think [s] death no hazard in this enterprise" (1.1.5). With an excessive amount of suitors after Antioch’s daughter, a riddle is given to the suitors. The Prince of Tyre must solve this riddle to win the hand of a beautiful princess, just as Bassiano must solve a riddle to win Portia in The Merchant of Venice. ", Roger Prior, "The Life of George Wilkins,", Edward Dowden. Afraid that Antiochus will try to kill him, Pericles hurriedly returns to Tyre. But the answer is deadly and when Pericles uncovers the terrible truth he flees the land of Antioch and sets in motion an adventure full of love, peril and perseverance that reverberates across three nations. A storm wrecks Pericles' ship and washes him up on the shores of Pentapolis. The riddle The riddle seems to be just the 1st 4 couplets of Pericles' lines; the rest (unrhymed) looks like his reaction. Pericles learns that she and the king, her father, are lovers, he flees for his life. Both the 1973 and 1974 productions had the same cast, headed by Stratford stars, Nicholas Pennel and. Bravely, Pericles decides to try – and learns through the riddle that Antiochus is having an incestuous relationship with his daughter. The play was not included in the First Folio in 1623; it was one of seven plays added to the original Folio thirty-six in the second impression of the Third Folio in 1664. Setting Tough-o-Meter Writing Style Riddles The Ocean and Tempests The Rusty Armor Music Jewels Booker's Seven Basic Plots Analysis Plot Analysis Three-Act Plot Analysis Allusions. . [6] The title page of the play's first printed edition states that the play was often acted at the Globe Theatre, which was most likely true. This gushing admiration is underscored by Gower, here a figure reminiscent of Sondheim’s narrator in Into the Woods, who describes Dionyza’s daughter trying to compete with Marina: “So / With the dove of Paphos might the crow / Vie feathers white.”. For example, The moment is compelling because, upstage, Dionyza watches her daughter pining to be Marina, perhaps pining to be white, and we can see the pain it causes her. To put it bluntly, the incestuous king and his daughter are nonwhite, the noble Pericles, white. Like many fairy tales, Shakespeare’s Pericles has a riddle at its heart. Pericles was among the most notorious "bad quartos." [15] In 2002, Prof. Brian Vickers summarised the historical evidence and took the Cambridge editors to task for ignoring more than a century of scholarship.[5]. Dublin: 1875. [5] Wilkins has been proposed as the co-author since 1868. Is Shakespeare Dead? As early as 1983, There have been four important productions of "Pericles" mounted at The Stratford Festival in Stratford, Canada. Nunn also plays fast and loose with Shakespeare’s script, but to what end? There, Marina manages to keep her virginity by convincing the men that they should seek virtue. The Good Wife–Hillary Clinton as Lady Macbeth. The riddle is: "I am no viper, yet I feed On mother's flesh which did me breed. "[citation needed], The New Bibliographers of the early twentieth century Alfred W. Pollard, Walter Wilson Greg, and R. B. McKerrow Pericles is shocked and he manages to escape before he is put to death by Antiochus. Looking for a bride, he is intrigued by the king’s challenge. It is no spoiler to say that solving the riddle reveals that the princess’s father has enticed her into an incestuous relationship. In 1973 there was a production directed by Jean Gascon that was repeated in 1974; there were later productions, respectively in 1986, 2003, and the latest in 2015. . Whilst various arguments support that Shakespeare is the sole author of the play (notably DelVecchio and Hammond's Cambridge edition of the play), modern editors generally agree that Shakespeare is responsible for almost exactly half the play—827 lines—the main portion after scene 9 that follows the story of Pericles and Marina. [See: Folios and Quartos (Shakespeare).] The play was also performed at the Globe Theatre on 10 June 1631. If he, too, believes Americans are more feeling than thinking (and in this election season who can blame him?) Like Pericles; and stale How they may be, and yet in two, But this seems to be a "novelization" of the play, stitched together with bits from Twine; Wilkins mentions the play in the Argument to his version of the story[6] – so that Wilkins' novel derives from the play, not the play from the novel. Though his is the rustiest armor, Pericles wins the tournament, and dines with Simonides and his daughter Thaisa, both of whom are very impressed with him. The wicked Cleon and Dionyza are killed when their people revolt against their crime. Around the same time, nearly three million Jews were immigrating to America, fleeing pogroms and persecution in Eastern Europe, often leaving wealth and families behind. Navigation. Play written in part by William Shakespeare, F. E. Halliday, A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964, Baltimore, Penguin, 1964, Edwards, Philip. The Riddle. Marina, the girl so pure that men refuse to sully her, is white, blond, and dressed in white. The first is Confessio Amantis (1393) of John Gower, an English poet and contemporary of Geoffrey Chaucer. Dowden also banished Titus Andronicus from the canon because it belonged to “the pre-Shakespearean school of bloody dramas”. Pericles solves it, but the King orders him put to death anyway. Worried that she is ruining their market, the brothel rents her out as a tutor to respectable young ladies. He sets the suitors a riddle—the one who solves it will marry his daughter. So it’s especially problematic that critics so far have ignored race in Nunn’s Pericles, except to note that Nunn is working with a “diverse company of actors” (Alexis Soloski for The New York Times). The earliest performance of Pericles known with certainty occurred in May 1619, at Court, "in the King's great chamber" at Whitehall. This provides the story of Apollonius of Tyre. Pericles leaves Helicanus as regent and sails to Tarsus, a city beset by famine. [3] The Cambridge editors reject this contention, arguing that the play is entirely by Shakespeare and that all the oddities can be defended as a deliberately old-fashioned style; however, they do not discuss the stylistic links with Wilkins's work or any of the scholarly papers demonstrating contrary opinions. The generous Pericles gives the governor of the city, Cleon, and his wife Dionyza, grain from his ship to save their people. The play opens in the court of Antiochus, king of Antioch, who has offered the hand of his beautiful daughter to any man who answers his riddle; but those who fail shall die. I haven’t seen this production, but I know the play well, and can’t really think what Susan Sontag’s texts has to do with it. [a] Modern textual studies indicate that the first two acts of 835 lines detailing the many voyages of Pericles were written by a collaborator, which strong evidence suggests to have been the victualler, panderer, dramatist and pamphleteer George Wilkins.[5]. The famine ends, and after being thanked profusely by Cleon and Dionyza, Pericles continues on. Questions: 1) What literary device is the riddle an example of? Upon guessing the riddle, Pericles realizes his life is in danger and decides, in consultation with his confidant Helicanus, that he must flee. The play has risen somewhat in popularity since Monck, though it remains extraordinarily difficult to stage effectively, an aspect played with in Paris Belongs to Us (filmed 1957–1960). Theater is ephemeral. Seeking to find a wife, Pericles, Prince of Tyre travels to Antioch where he is faced with a riddle to win the hand of Antiochus’ daughter. Although his equipment is rusty, Pericles wins the tournament and the hand of Thaisa (who is deeply attracted to him) in marriage. Lysimachus will marry Marina. The pure-equals-white and depraved-equals-black dichotomy is so consistent as to seem intentional. Here is an opportunity to push back against the über-whiteness Marina symbolizes, and yet there is nothing in the play that encourages us to laugh at her (except behind our hands). In that year Nicholas Rowe wrote, "there is good Reason to believe that the greatest part of that Play was not written by him; tho' it is own'd, some part of it certainly was, particularly the last Act. In accordance with Victorian notions of decorum, the play's frank treatment of incest and prostitution was muted or removed. Solved: 60%. (Act 1) Gower opens the play with a chorus to set the first scene. [1] If the play was co-written or revised by Wilkins, this would support a later date, as it is believed Wilkins' career as a writer spanned only the years 1606-8. At Guernica, we’ve spent the last 15 years producing uncompromising journalism. Again, a storm arises while at sea, and Thaisa appears to die giving birth to her child, Marina. As far as is known, there was no other play with the same title that was acted in this era; the logical assumption is that this must have been Shakespeare's play. Pericles must answer Antiochus' riddle to win the hand of his daughter. The answer, which no one has found (death is the penalty of failure), is that father and daughter are having an incestuous relationship. (Act 2) Gower continues the story with a… John Gower introduces each act with a prologue. The legendary director Trevor Nunn has here given us a play that is neither camp nor entirely in earnest. [12] The 1986 Oxford University Press edition of the Complete Works and the subsequent individual edition include a "reconstructed text" of Pericles, which adapts passages from Wilkins' novel on the assumption that they are based on the play and record the dialogue more accurately than the quarto. When we meet him, he has arrived in Antioch to take a crack at a riddle so he can marry King Antiochus's daughter. He reads the riddle and solves it, determining the answer is, in fact, a person’s head. Thinking that Pericles died in the storm, Thaisa becomes a priestess in the temple of Diana. Next, the goddess Diana appears in a dream to Pericles, and tells him to come to the temple where he finds Thaisa. My play date wrote me to say that the costumes alone have been on her mind ever since seeing the play. If he fails he will face death. 110 [He reads the riddle] I am no viper, yet I feed On mother's flesh which did me breed. Pericles reads the riddle and realizes that it refers to Antiochus's daughter finding a father and lover in the same body. Like soccer, even multiple camera angles don’t quite give you a sense of the dramatic sweep of the playing field. I'm double, I'm single, I'm black, blue, and gray, I'm read from both ends, the same either way. Complete summary of William Shakespeare's Pericles, Prince of Tyre. Maybe the problems with Nunn’s Pericles can be understood in this light. Pericles sees that to have solved the riddle is as dangerous as to … The Theatre For a New Audience in New York City staged a production in early 2016 directed by Trevor Nunn with Christian Camargo as Pericles. In Pentapolis, Pericles wins a tournament and marries the king’s daughter, Thaisa. Perpetuating tired tropes like the correlation of whiteness with purity does not seem fresh and exciting, just as a too-politically correct production would make the audience feel more dutiful than inspired. But the real riddle in Pericles at The Polonsky Shakespeare Center, is outside of the play—in its problematic casting, criticism that ignores this problem, and the eclipsing shadow of its director, Trevor Nunn. So far, no one has been able to solve the riddle. The production initially ran at London's, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 16:03. This criticism seems to belong more to the nineteenth century, when the superstar American actor Edwin Forrest was booed offstage for doing Shakespeare in his rough, woodsman-like accent. But there is no joy in Mudville. The story begins with a riddle, propounded by Antiochus, King of Antioch, which Pericles solves. Hint: An eye. Video can’t capture the experience of live performance. Indeed, the riddle that is the key to many incest stories (including Sophocles’s Oedipus Rex) appears in Pericles as yet another fairy tale motif—the riddle that the prince must solve to win the (incestuous) princess. I sought a husband, in which labour, The murdering Dionyza (named, aptly for the drunken Dionysian women who sometimes tore victims to pieces) is dressed in black. The second source is the Lawrence Twine prose version of Gower's tale, The Pattern of Painful Adventures, dating from c. 1576, reprinted in 1607. Pericles is one of the suitors for the hand of the beautiful daughter of Antiochus, king of Antioch, who has told all suitors that they must correctly answer a riddle he gives to earn her hand; if they fail, they are executed. Pericles. The play opens in the court of Antiochus, king of Antioch, who has offered the hand of his beautiful daughter to any man who answers his riddle; but those who fail shall die. Some fishermen tell him about king Simonides's daughter, a lovely girl who will be married to whoever wins a jousting contest the following day. [9][10] The only published text of Pericles, the 1609 quarto (all subsequent quartos were reprints of the original), is manifestly corrupt; it is often clumsily written and incomprehensible and has been interpreted as a pirated text reconstructed from memory by someone who witnessed the play (much like theories surrounding the 1603 "bad quarto" of Hamlet). Take, for example, the sixteen-year-old Virgin Marina. Bust of Pericles. A third related work is The Painful Adventures of Pericles by George Wilkins, published in 1608. Pericles understands the riddle: the father is in love with the daughter (because the mother died in childbirth) and the daughter repays her father with her own love. But Nunn’s Miranda goes skittering around the stage on little cat feet, and when the brothel-keeper’s goon tries to rape her she only screams and mildly flails about—not the kind of knock-down, drag-out fight you’d expect from someone so passionate about her virtue. It is a silly riddle and quite transparent. Most scholars support 1607 or early 1608 as most likely, which accords well with what is known about the play's likely co-author, George Wilkins, whose extant literary career seems to span only three years, 1606 to 1608. As the Shrieve's crusts, and nasty as his fish— Pericles understands the riddle: the father is in love with the daughter (because the mother died in childbirth) and the daughter repays her father with her own love. Luckily, Thaisa's casket washes ashore at Ephesus near the residence of Lord Cerimon, a physician who revives her. Pericles hears the riddle and understands that it is a trick, where revealing the truth of the king's incestuous relationship with his daughter will also result in death. Nunn’s Miranda goes skittering around the stage on little cat feet. The King is protecting an incestuous relationship with his daughter by promising marriage to her for anyone who can solve a (seemingly) impossible riddle. Shakespeare, His Mind and His Art. : A production of Shakespeare’s Pericles offers both promise and frustration. On the way home Pericles is shipwrecked in a storm in Pentapolis. As you will live resolve it you. And yet there’s little in Nunn’s production that helps us read it that way. [16], T. S. Eliot found more to admire, saying of the moment of Pericles' reunion with his daughter: "To my mind the finest of all the 'recognition scenes' is Act V, sc. He is rescued by a group of poor fishermen who inform him that Simonides, King of Pentapolis, is holding a tournament the next day and that the winner will receive the hand of his daughter Thaisa in marriage. Pericles reads the Riddle and instantly figures the answer and says it is much better to keep it a secret. What am I? Pericles determines to enter the contest. Pericles hints that he knows the answer, and asks for more time to think. Finally she stops him with a linguistic catch-22: “If you were born to honour, show it now; / If put upon you, make the judgment good / That thought you worthy of it.” In other words, if you are honorable you will leave me the hell alone, and if you only have a reputation for honor, here’s your chance to justify people’s good opinion of you. This answer has 4 letters and comes to us from the N.Y. Times newspaper daily crossword puzzle. She becomes famous for music and other decorous entertainments. The editors of the Oxford and Arden editions of Pericles accept Wilkins as Shakespeare's collaborator, citing stylistic links between the play and Wilkins's style that are found nowhere else in Shakespeare. What's Up With the Ending? Riddle Me This . It vanished from the stage for nearly two centuries, until Samuel Phelps staged a production at Sadler's Wells Theatre in Clerkenwell in 1854. Throwne forth, and rak't into the common tub (Ben Jonson, Ode (to Himself)), In 1660, at the start of the Restoration when the theatres had just re-opened, Thomas Betterton played the title role in a new production of Pericles at the Cockpit Theatre, the first production of any of Shakespeare's works in the new era. The play draws upon two sources for the plot. Antiochus presents the riddle Pericles must solve. John Gower introduces each act with a prologue. "Thou that begett'st him that did thee beget" -- "This famous riddling pronouncement, one of the play's most vivid phrases, explicitly rewrites the Antiochan riddle with which Pericles began, purging it of sin and crime, rendering the connection between father and daughter allegorical and poetic rather than carnal" (Garber 773). Pericles returns to Tyre, where his trusted friend and counsellor Helicanus advises him to leave the city, for Antiochus surely will hunt him down. Antiochus grants him forty days, and then sends an assassin after him. And Nunn’s Pericles is at times transcendently beautiful, clever, and fun (the soldiers’ surprisingly graceful dance made me sigh with pleasure), but its tone-deafness with regard to race made it impossible to lose myself emotionally, as it lacks a critical framework that helps audiences engage with this problem intellectually. After John Arthos' 1953 article "Pericles, Prince of Tyre: A Study in the Dramatic Use of Romantic Narrative,"[17] scholars began to find merits and interesting facets within the play's dramaturgy, narrative and use of the marvelous. Pericles' wanderings bring him to Mytilene where the governor Lysimachus, seeking to cheer him up, brings in Marina. Antiochus gives Pericles forty days to get the “right” answer. [11] The play was printed in quarto twice in 1609 by the stationer Henry Gosson. If the riddle is guessed incorrectly, the suitor will die. With contributors from every continent and at every stage of their careers, we are a home for singular voices, incisive ideas, and critical questions. Reaching Tharsus, he relieves the famine there with corn from his ships. The sailors insist that Thaisa's body be set overboard in order to calm the storm. Nunn utilized a generally bare stage but with more elaborate and ornate costuming from different eras and cultures. And yet, if the American context is significant, it’s not evident from this production. "[16] The episodic nature of the play combined with the Act Four’s lewdness troubled Dowden because these traits problematised his idea of Shakespeare. ... poses a riddle to each suitor. Printed program for Guthrie Theater production of, The Trauailes of the Three English Brothers, Australia Dancing – Sainthill, Loudon (1919–1969), "Shakespeare Troupe bringing "Pericles" to Stratford Library Shakespeare Company to perform on July 8", "Shakespeare's 'Pericles' comes to Kenilworth Aug. 14", http://playoffthepage.com/2016/01/review-of-pericles-at-the-guthrie-theater/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pericles,_Prince_of_Tyre&oldid=991740477, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Helicanus and Escanes – two lords of Tyre, Thaisa – daughter to Simonides, Pericles' wife, Lords, Knights, Gentlemen, Sailors, Pirates, Fisherman, and Messengers, In 1989, David Thacker directed the play at the. Next Tone . he might not expect us to read his play too closely. In one memorable scene Brutus’s wife, another badass woman named Portia, cuts her thigh to show that she is tough enough to keep her husband’s secrets. Critical response to the play has traditionally been mixed. With both parties aware that Antioch’s secret has been discovered, Pericles flees for fear of his life. When Marina is captured by pirates and sold into a brothel we get another opportunity: to see why Marina should be so admired, other than for being beautiful, pure, and white. While puzzling out the riddle, Pericles discovers the dark secret of incest the King and his daughter share and flees the country in disgust. Pericles, the young Prince (ruler) of Tyre in Phoenicia (Lebanon), hears the riddle, and instantly understands its meaning: Antiochus is engaged in an incestuous relationship with his daughter. By William Shakespeare. The BBC has broadcast two radio adaptations of the play: one in 2005 starring, In August 2019, Dan Dawes directed a stripped back, multi-rolling production of the play for the company Idle Discourse, which focused heavily on bold storytelling and physical comedy. I am no Viper, yet I feed Yet the play's pseudo-naive structure placed it at odds with the neoclassical tastes of the Restoration era. Like a bold champion, I assume the lists, Nor ask advice of any other thought But faithfulness and courage. Pericles, the play’s hero, is the ruler of Tyre. It shows us what a “good stoic’s daughter” can bear and helps us read her later suicide not just a tragedy but an act of defiance: she “swallows fire,” committing suicide as many (male) stoics had done rather than be made a captive. The amoral pirate-queen of the brothel is black. This production was revived at Stratford after the war, with Paul Scofield in the title role. [6] A play called Pericles was in the repertory of a recusant group of itinerant players arrested for performing a religious play in Yorkshire in 1609; however, it is not clear if they performed Pericles, or if theirs was Shakespeare's play. I once heard Paul Edmondson, Head of Learning and Research for the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, compare live theater to “Michelangelo’s snowman.” Because the production quickly melts into memory, criticism, for better or worse, is often all that remains of a show. He carefully hints at the truth and Antiochus is, in his turn, horrified. Pericles wants to marry the fair daughter of Antiochus, but in order to win her hand he must correct answer a riddle none before him have figured out. Fortunately, one of the fishermen drags Pericles' suit of armour on shore that very moment, and the prince decides to enter the tournament. Those who fail will be executed. I mother, wife; and yet his child: Then Antiochus says that either Pericles answers that very moment or he will have to die. Pericles deciphers the shameful answer, and fearing for his life, Pericles … John Rhodes staged Pericles at the Cockpit Theatre soon after the theatres re-opened in 1660; it was one of the earliest productions, and the first Shakespearean revival, of the Restoration period. Turns out the riddle reveals that the king and his daughter have been incestuously involved and that relationship is put into metaphor by Pericles: "And she an eater of her mother's flesh, By the defiling of her parent's bed; And both like serpents are, who though they feed If he reveals this truth, he will be killed, but if he answers incorrectly, he will also be killed. William Jaggard included Pericles in his 1619 False Folio. In 1629, Ben Jonson lamented the audiences' enthusiastic responses to the play: No doubt some mouldy tale, The King, who has an incestuous relationship with his daughter, has challenged her suitors with a riddle. In a profile of Nunn for The New York Times, Alexis Soloski notes, offhandedly, that American actors are reputed to be more “feeling” and less intellectual than British actors. I sought a husband, in which labour I found that kindness in a father: He's father, son, and husband mild; I … There have been great, recent examples of theater companies engaging with race in ways that don’t seem didactic, such as the Royal Shakespeare Company’s all-black Julius Caesar, which traveled to the Brooklyn Academy of Music as part of The Bridge Project. Shakespeare wrote himself into an exciting challenge here. Photograph courtesy of Anthony Jauneaud / Flickr, Tana Wojczuk’s essays and criticism have appeared in the. Simonides initially expresses doubt about the union, but soon comes to like Pericles and allows them to wed. A letter sent by the noblemen reaches Pericles in Pentapolis, who decides to return to Tyre with the pregnant Thaisa. And we’re constantly working to produce a magazine that deserves you—a magazine that is a platform for ideas fostering justice, equality, and civic action. The King, angered that Pericles solved the riddle, lies and says Pericles did not solve it correctly. [2], After Jonson and until the mid-twentieth century, critics found little to like or praise in the play. Nunn shifted some scenes around and brought in prose text from George Wilkins' Pericles story (thought to be the co-author of this play with Shakespeare) in order to improve the pace and clarity of the story. In the second half of the twentieth century, critics began to warm to the play. Pericles finds himself in Antioch one day because he is in love with the unnamed daughter of the local king, Antiochus who set him in front of a book with a riddle. When we are introduced to her she wafts around the stage, waggling her arms like nauseous swans, wearing a white dress in the Edwardian high-waisted style that implies a maternity gown just as it insists on the wearer’s virginity. i of that very great play Pericles. Pericles, prince of Tyre, is one of the suitors for the hand of the beautiful daughter of Antiochus, king of Antioch, who has told all suitors that they must correctly answer a riddle he gives to earn her hand; if they fail, they are executed. Not content to have Marina do rhetorical battle for her hymen offstage, Shakespeare lets her argue in the court of the audience’s opinion, and she leads Lysimachus, a would-be client on a verbal chase. Like many fairy tales, Shakespeare’s Pericles has a riddle at its heart. Her speech is one of the most oft-quoted in Shakespeare for its rhetorical power. Meanwhile, Pericles returns to Tarsus for his daughter. Pericles grudgingly agrees, and decides to stop at Tarsus because he fears that Marina may not survive the storm. Pericles departs to rule Tyre, leaving Marina in the care of Cleon and Dionyza. With Thaisa pregnant, she and Pericles sail for Tyre. The production included folk songs and dances interwoven throughout the play as was often done in the original Shakespeare productions. Walter Nugent Monck revived the play in 1929 at his Maddermarket Theatre in Norwich, cutting the first act. Required fields are marked *. And, while the play's textual critics have sharply disagreed about editorial methodology in the last half-century, almost all of them, beginning with F. D. Hoeniger with his 1963 Arden 2 edition, have been enthusiastic about Pericles (Other, more recent, critics have been Stephen Orgel (Pelican Shakespeare), Suzanne Gossett (Arden 3), Roger Warren (Reconstructed Oxford), and Doreen DelVecchio and Antony Hammond (Cambridge)). Marina grows up more beautiful than Philoten the daughter of Cleon and Dionyza, so Dionyza plans Marina's murder. Riddle me this Pronounced as one letter, and written with three, two letters there are, and two only in me.

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