The compilation time could be a severe limitation for fault simulators that require recompilation for each faulty circuit. Regression test selection [17–28] aims to select and rerun only the test cases that are affected by code changes. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123749130000081, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978178548117850009X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123704801500025, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781785481178500064, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128023013000028, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123743640500151, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781558609006500063, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444634559501082, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065245818300615, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444639653504918, Modernization of Reliability and Maintainability Information System (REMIS) into the Global Combat Support System-Air Force (GCSS-AF) Framework*, Network Analysis, Architecture, and Design (3), An introduction to modern software quality assurance, Abran and Nguyenkim, 1993; Lawler and Kitchenham, 2003, Jiun-Lang Huang, ... Stephen F. Cauley, in, Depending on performance, portability, and, Code inspections are good at finding defects of, 24th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, Many methods for reliability, availability, and, A Survey on Regression Test-Case Prioritization, Modern software systems keep evolving to refine software functionality and, 27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, WMC represents the sum of the complexities of its methods, RFC is the number of different methods that can be executed when an object of that class receives a message, Chidamber and Kemerer define Lack of Cohesion in Methods as the number of pairs of methods in a class that do not have at least one field in common minus the number of pairs of methods in the class that share at least one field. Moreover, quality management will be presented in Chapter 9. Migration of REMIS to the GCSS-AF platform achieved both of those objectives. A functionality defect is one in which the behavior of the service does not meet the requirements for the service. When delivery times vary greatly, users lose confidence in the timely delivery of information. (2014). A note about Germany: While the education system in English-speaking countries at least offers the distinction between computer science and software engineering, the German education system almost exclusively talks about “Informatik” (information science) meaning the science of systematic information processing. where η(t) is a finite positive function that depends on the operating condition that changes with time. Failure of a standby component needs tending to but is not a mission-critical failure. Reliability defects are best found by code inspections. Verify if the programs have been parameterized under necessary conditions to promote reusuability. These relationships are shown in the following equation, where A is availability. (Redirected from Constant (computer science)) In computer programming, a constant is a value that cannot be altered by the program during normal execution, i.e., the value is constant. During simulation, the instructions are interpreted and executed one at a time. The discipline’s first concerns were electronic and mechanical components (Ebeling, 2010). Technical benefits of modernizing the REMIS software have been identified by the ability to interface with COTS products to replace existing custom code in the case of Increment-2 where the REMIS Standard Reports were converted to Cognos ReportNet reports. The three approaches are interpreted code, high-level programming language source code, and native machine code. In this sense the term reliability can be coupled with confidence in that it describes how users have confidence that the network and system will meet their requirements. After all, the program will run perfectly well without it. In fact, software engineering has grown so fast in the last several decades that it has become tightly connected with all other areas of computer science (e.g., artificial intelligence, parallel processing, computer graphics, human-computer interaction, database management systems, and many others) as well as with some areas outside the traditional computer domain (such as cognitive sciences and visual arts). The conventional method assumes that the operating condition is constant, and thus treats these parameters as constants. Understanding Nature through Observation About real things like bowling balls, black holes, antimatter, electrons, comets, etc. Verify if the data processing split up into subtransactions? By the mid-1950s, programmers began to use higher-level languages. The maintainability of a software application is the most important attribute after safety. This resource page presents a methodology that links operations and maintenance goals to the design process, and how it can be applied to any organization. Reliability, maintainability, and availability (RAM) are three system attributes that are of great interest to systems engineers, logisticians, and users. Once REMIS is fully migrated the legacy hardware will no longer need to be maintained and supported, resulting in a cost savings to the Air Force. Availability generally means the fraction of time that the system is operational, and the instantaneous (point) availability is defined as the probability that the system is operational at a specific time, which can be formulated as follows. This equation is explicit for availability, so relatively easy to calculate, and thus popularly used. More formally, the IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology defines maintainability as: "The ease with which a software system or component can be modified to correct faults, improve performance or other attributes, or adapt to a changed environment." All the advantages listed above would fall short in the light of today’s security risks. ... maintainability, and reusability. That is, to reveal faults in the latter versions as early as possible, the reused test cases should be executed in some specified order, which is the aim of test-case prioritization. An introduction to the intellectual enterprises of computer science and the art of programming. IJCA is a computer science and electronics journal related with Theoretical Informatics, Quantum Computing, Software Testing, Computer Vision, Digital Systems, ... Maintainability of the system is the ability to undergo changes relatively easily. Yiling Lou, ... Dan Hao, in Advances in Computers, 2019. More about programming than computer science, but it does talk a lot about and show some custom algorithms (it's more about programming-in-the-small, though it does talk about some big picture too), also it is old and out of print (last I checked), but I thought it was … This project was a technically successful application of ADM techniques to large-scale systems engineering, development, integration, and operational processes of a major component of the USAF IDMS. An omission defect is when functionality is missing from the code that should have been there. In this case, delay may not be as important as a guarantee of eventual delivery. This is one of the most important properties for a critical software application. Maintainability is a major stake of professional software development. This coupling can occur through method calls, field accesses, inheritance, arguments, return types, and exceptions, DIT is defined as the maximum length from the class node to the root/parent of the class hierarchy tree and is measured by the number of ancestor classes. As the ultimate goal of test-case prioritization, detecting more faults early is usually infeasible, because we can hardly know whether a test case detects faults without running the test case. Hardware and software resources are also more efficiently consumed. Along with reliability is maintainability. In the interpreted code approach, the target machine is a software emulator. REMIS capabilities and functionality will ultimately be absorbed into an Air Force enterprise-level product under the Expeditionary Combat Support System (ECSS) program. (4) to (6) in conjunction with Eqs. For example, Google engineers have witnessed a quadratic increase in their regression testing time, and the number of tests executed each day within Google already exceeds 100 million [5–7]. In the actual implementation, each statement is replaced with the corresponding language constructs or machine instructions. maintainability The ability of an item, under stated conditions of use, to be retained in or restored to a state in which it can perform its required functions, when maintenance is performed under stated conditions and using prescribed procedures and resources. Once the machine code has been created and stored in a file, you could in theory just throw away the source code. Furthermore, that work also proposed various basic test-case prioritization techniques, including the total and additional techniques, which are usually taken as the control techniques in the evaluation of novel test-case prioritization techniques, and still represent state-of-the-art test-case prioritization according to three recent studies [68–70]. For example, based on the papers collected for this survey (details shown in Section 2), recent 3 years witness another upsurge in test-case prioritization paper publications due to the popularity of continuous integration. It is important to keep in mind that only failures that prevent the system from performing its mission, or mission-critical failures (more on this in Chapter 2), are generally considered in this analysis. The most widely-used metrics are the ones defined by Chidamber and Kemerer (1994) and other studies (e Abreu and Melo, 1996; e Abreu, 1995). Maintainability is a statistical measure of the time to restore the system to fully operational status after it has experienced a fault. When associated with an identifier, a constant is said to be "named," although the terms "constant" and "named constant" are often used interchangeably. Using well established software tools and especially virtualization, the maintenance of the system from the IT point of view is streamlined, as backups, restores, software updates and other maintenance tasks are accomplished in an efficient and well established manner. A reliability defect is one that might affect the running of the system. Besides regression testing, test-case prioritization is also applied to other testing scenarios where test cases are not designed for an old version but for the current version, which is called initial testing [71]. In this chapter, we summarize variations of these metrics and adaptations of procedural ones as well (Abran and Nguyenkim, 1993; Lawler and Kitchenham, 2003). To fully describe this performance class, we add availability to reliability and maintainability. Indeed, maintenance is nearly always the longest part of a software life cycle, as it lasts … In the research literature, it has been reported to consume 80% of the testing cost [4]. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Eq. That is, test-case prioritization in initial testing (abbreviated as ITP in this chapter) targets at scheduling the execution order of test cases designed for the current version so as to detect faults in the current version as early as possible. Mapping the simulated digital network to a high-level programming language such as C enhances performance and is portable to any target machine that has a C compiler. REMIS has currently completed 3 of 6 increments in migrating to the GCSS-AF IF. The term maintainability corresponds to the ability to update or modify the system under test. I would like to receive email from HarvardX and learn about other offerings related to CS50's Introduction to Computer Science. (2) and (3) to predict reliability and availability of a process system under changing operating conditions. This course is an introduction to the fundamental concepts and terms of computer science, including algorithms, problem solving techniques, data types, concept of loops, conditional statements, modular programming, pointers, arrays, strings, basic file processing, structures and simple classes. Test-case prioritization was first proposed in regression testing to deal with the trade-off between what ideal regression testing should do and what is affordable by scheduling the execution order of test cases [67]. The analysis of reliabilities of process systems often uses models based on the Weibull distribution, for which the cumulative distribution function for reliability, i.e. A code inspection checklist can find simple errors of omission and commission. 2,531,922 already enrolled! This is generally expressed as a mean-time-to-repair (MTTR). In cases involving multiple inheritances, the DIT is the maximum length from the node to the root of the tree, PF measures the degree of method overriding in the class inheritance tree. Yang et al. Depending on performance, portability, and maintainability needs, different code generation techniques may be used [Wang 1987]. Software engineering applications are practically unlimited. Passengers expect flights to depart and arrive within reasonable time boundaries. Several maintainability issues can be detected using quality metrics. FIGURE 8.10. Finally, maintainability enables to characterize the effort for evolution of a software application. Maintainability is a multifaceted quality attribute - each of the facets must be analyzed to objectively measure it. Later, Rothermel et al. A dependable software application is a simple application. This might be a defect in which a hard-coded value would be better stored in a file and read at runtime. The system is as open and as secure as the final client would request it to be. Therefore, the standards (DO178 [ARI 92, RTA 11], IEC 61508 [IEC 08b], CENELEC EN 50128 [CEN 01, CEN 11], ISO 26262 ([ISO 11]), IEC 60880 [IEC 06], etc.) Boundary data is a pair of test data values at each end of a range: The data at the upper or lower limits of expectations that should be accepted Jiun-Lang Huang, ... Stephen F. Cauley, in Electronic Design Automation, 2009. This is a very important parameter as the system is subjected to changes throughout the software life cycle. Computer science, the study of computers and computing, including their theoretical and algorithmic foundations, hardware and software, and their uses for processing information.The discipline of computer science includes the study of algorithms and data structures, computer and network design, modeling data and information processes, and artificial intelligence. Math and Computer Science are about fake things like numbers, graphs, functions, lists, etc. An example network for native machine code generation. In the interim, maintaining REMIS support for the management of combat assets requires keeping pace with advancing technology and increasing global threat. Reliability is a statistical indicator of the frequency of failure of the network and its components and represents the unscheduled outages of service. Many methods for reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis are now available for project managers and engineers (Department of Defense, 2009). The generated pseudocode is shown in the following. (4) belongs to Volterra integral equation of the second kind, for which numerical methods are available (Press et al., 2007). Losing or misplacing passengers is unacceptable. This is a very important parameter as the system is subjected to changes throughout the software life cycle. Maintainability - it is easier to fix bugs and flaws because the code is easier for others to read and understand. Maintainability The purpose of maintainability is to ensure that, over time, a program can be easily maintained. Maintainability is defined as "the relative ease and economy time and resources with which an time can be retained in or restored to a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of … Furthermore, modern industry companies also suffer from regression testing cost due to the large number of accumulated test cases during software evolution. The list of metrics is described in Table 2.1. Repairing a system failure consists of several stages: detection; isolation of the failure to a component that can be replaced; the time required to deliver the necessary parts to the location of the failed component (logistics time); and the time to actually replace the component, test it, and restore full service. When these boundaries are crossed, passengers are likely to use a different airline or not fly at all. James McGovern, ... Sunil Mathew, in Java Web Services Architecture, 2003. That is, test-case prioritization is usually regarded as scheduling test cases to detect more faults earlier. Take the network in Figure 8.10 as an example. Manel Serra, ... José M. Nougués, in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 2017. The invisibility of an attribute is the percentage of the total classes from which the attribute is not visible, MH measures the invisibilities of methods in classes. Philip H. Newcomb, ... Luong Nguyen, in Information Systems Transformation, 2010. The migration effort has allowed the REMIS data to be published using the GCSS ESB, which provides REMIS data to other systems with less level of effort in development for each interfacing system. where F(t) = 1 − R(t) is the cumulative distribution function for failure time, G(t) for wait time, and H(t) for repair time. A commission defect is when the code performs a function incorrectly. An example is a search engine, which must support increasing numbers of users, and the number of topics it indexes. Integrity, in the context of computer systems, refers to methods of ensuring that data is real, accurate and safeguarded from unauthorized user modification. The native machine code approach generates the native machine code directly without the need of compilation; this makes it a more viable solution to fault simulation. Furthermore, even taking these alternative goals, test-case prioritization is also an NP-hard problem [73]. Jean-Louis Boulanger, in Certifiable Software Applications 1, 2016. James D. McCabe, in Network Analysis, Architecture, and Design (3), 2007. (2013). Collectively, they affect both the utility and the life-cycle costs of a product or system. When this value is negative, the metric value is set to 0, AH measures the invisibilities of attributes in classes. To promote the long-term development of the test-case prioritization topic, it is necessary to review and summarize it systematically. However, in a computation-intensive application we may be able to optimize the system by buffering data during periods of computing. ); documentation: it must be complete and correct, legible, stored in a format to allow analysis and manipulation; diagnosis: ability for diagnostics such as logging, access to important variables, etc. See more. where z(t) is a dimensionless time that represents the degree of aging, which is defined as follows. Passengers (users) of the airline system expect accurate delivery of information (in this case the passengers themselves) to the destination. The maintainability of software depends on a few different factors. Failures of components that have no effect on the mission, at least when they fail, are not considered in these calculations. This approach offers the best portability and maintainability at the cost of reduced performance. Coupling is also used to describe software as well as systems. probability of survival is as follows. But what if those costs could be alleviated - and performance optimized - by encouraging facility professionals to provide input during the design phase of the project? However, it is correct only when the system can be repaired only once. Measuring software maintainability is non-trivial and there exists no single metric to measure it accurately. The earliest programming languages were assembly languages, not far removed from the binary-encoded instructions directly executed by the computer. Reliability also requires some degree of predictable behavior. In this context, maintainability is a function of engineering design. These two pieces of work witness the beginning of test-case prioritization, and a large amount of work has been proposed in the following two decades. where β > 0 is the shape parameter, and η > 0 is the scale parameter. Bruce R. Maxim, Marouane Kessentini, in Software Quality Assurance, 2016. Although crucial, regression testing can be extremely costly [1–3]. Maintainability in engineering design is the relative ease and economy of time and resources with which an engineered installation can be retained in, or restored to, a specified condition through scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. Computer science focuses on theory and fundamentals; ... 11 Essential attributes of good software 30/10/2014 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1 Product characteristic Description Maintainability Software should be written in such a way so that it can evolve to meet the changing needs of customers. During the recent years, researchers have still been making obvious achievements on this topic. ); therefore, the ability to maintain a software application with respect to safety is essential. Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. Modern software systems keep evolving to refine software functionality and maintainability, as well as fixing software flaws. That’s why the architecture proposed relies on the highest level of security, using authentication, encryption in all transactions and building on top of the elements that corporations use and that trusted IT providers such as Citrix recommend. Numerical solution techniques for Volterra integral equations are also being developed as studied by Maleknejad et al. Regression testing has been widely used during software evolution to ensure that software changes do not bring new regression faults. MTTR usually assumes the logistics time is zero; this is an assumption, which is invalid if a component must be replaced to restore service but takes days to obtain. [29] presented a widely known industrial case to show the necessity of test-case prioritization. Maintainability is a statistical measure of the time to restore the system to fully operational status after it has experienced a fault. Briefly speaking, test-case prioritization aims to schedule the execution order of test cases so as to satisfy some testing requirements. Top quality Computer Science resources for KS3, KS4, KS5 GCSE Computer Science Maintainability of source code THE education site for computer science and ICT Services offered by the GCSS-AF IF have replaced equivalent services that were hosted on the REMIS stand-alone hardware and used only by the REMIS application. In other words, regression test-case prioritization (usually abbreviated as RTP) targets at scheduling the execution order of test cases designed for an old version so as to detect faults in its latter versions as early as possible. In addition to the different A level requirements above, you will also need at least five GCSEs (A-C) including science, English, and maths. Availability (also known as operational availability) is the relationship between the frequency of mission-critical failures and the time to restore service. The process consists of finding code fragments that violate structural or semantic properties such as the ones related to coupling and complexity. It has long been considered one of three related attributes that must be considered when making, buying, or using a … The maintainability advantage needs to be understood also as part of securing company investment in training: by providing a framework under which all simulation based trainings are hosted and managed, all the company training portfolio is made available to personnel, increasing awareness and usage and limiting the people and skills required to effectively manage all the training material. This is defined as the mean time between mission-critical failures (or mean time between failures) divided by the sum of mean time to repair and mean time between mission-critical failures or mean time between failures. probability of failure, wait, and repair, which can be calculated as follows. For a service to be considered reliable, the delivery of information must occur within well-known time boundaries. Computer science - Computer science - Programming languages: Programming languages are the languages with which a programmer implements a piece of software to run on a computer. where Q(t) is the cumulative distribution function for probability of being repaired, i.e. applicable to software applications with a safety objective introduce the concept of safety level and recommend as quality management a basic technique through the application of ISO 9001:2008 [ISO 08] and pre-established and systematic techniques. Among the three areas, both test-suite reduction and regression test selection exclude some test executions and may suffer from unsafe test execution (i.e., missing regression faults). A parallel can be seen with the airline industry. Introduction to maintainability. A maintainability defect is one that obviously negatively impacts the service's maintainability. US Department of Defense 2005. Enroll. In computing, scalability is a characteristic of computers, networks, algorithms, networking protocols, programs and applications. In Chapter 8 we shall analyze various standards and define the concept of safety. Defects of this type are identified easily by code inspections. A levels – To get on to a computer science related degree you will usually require at least two A levels or equivalent.Entry requirements range from CDD to AAA, with the universities and colleges most commonly asking for BBC. While all of those things are important, there is more to computer science than just those things. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. (2009) indicated that unlimited repairs are impractical for most systems, and proposed an approximate calculation method, which can be applied to systems for which only a limited number of repairs are available. Therefore, test-case prioritization suffers from both the effectiveness and the efficiency issues. If these delay boundaries are exceeded, the visualization task fails for that application, forcing the system to use other techniques. Test-suite reduction (also denoted as test-suite minimization) [2, 8–16] aims at reducing the number of test cases by excluding redundant test cases. Volterra integral equations are also used in stochastic models that can deal with not only changing operating conditions but also process uncertainties as proposed by Deng et al. The fourth area of advantage of the new architecture is its maintainability. Maintainability introduces constraints on: design: it is necessary to implement abstraction, modularity, readability and complexity management, taking into account best practices; execution: this involves taking into account performance constraints to ensure the possibility of being able to change the application (available memory size, processor load, cycle time, size of the data handled, number of processed messages, etc. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. RMA refers to reliability, maintainability, and availability. Show in that work, the industry case has a product with about 20,000 lines of code consuming 7 weeks on running the entire test suite. Reliability is an attribute of any computer-related component (software, or hardware, or a network, for example) that consistently performs according to its specifications. Code inspections are good at finding defects of maintainability, reliability, and functionality. Accounting for as much as 80 percent of a building's life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance expenses often reach three times a building's initial construction costs. In contrast, test-case prioritization, the target area of this work, simply reorders test executions and does not discard any test case. Formally, test-case prioritization is defined as the following process: given any test suite T, test-case prioritization is to find a permutation T′ of T satisfying f(T′) ≥ f(PT), where PT represents any permutation of T and f is a function defined to map permutations of T to real numbers representing the prioritization goal [32]. Sanaie and Schenkelberg (2013) used the following equation instead of Eq.(4). Due to the characteristics of ITP (e.g., does not rely on old version information), its techniques are usually applicable to regression testing, whereas the techniques of the latter may not be applicable for the former. It is clear from this discussion that the only activity to establishing safety of a software application and ensuring its maintainability is quality management. Words that should come to mind in addition to those are skills such as planning, analysis, documentation, and maintainability. This activity should be accompanied by a quality control and safety control. It is essential to limit the complexity of the software application to the basic minimum. On the other hand, a system supporting visualization of real-time banking transactions may require a round-trip delay of less than 40 ms, with a delay variation of less than 500 μs. There has been quite a bit of argument in the literature on what constitutes an art or a science in the software production cycle. For example, if a service method was stubbed out during development and never implemented, it could pass all the functional tests, because it returns correct data, but it always returns the same data. For example, the emphasis of a network design may be to bound delay: A system supporting point-of-sale transactions may need to guarantee delivery of customer information and completion of the transaction within 15 seconds (where the network delay is on the order of 100s of ms); a Web application can have similar requirements. The term maintainability corresponds to the ability to update or modify the system under test. In computer science, coupling is considered to be the degree to which each program module relies on other modules, and is also the term used to describe connecting two or more systems.Coupling is broken down into loose coupling, tight coupling, and decoupled. On the surface, Computer Science seems like only programming and not much else. Roughly speaking, maintainability is inversely proportional to the amount of time it takes a developer to make a change and the risk that change will break something. an art by Donald Knuth in his classic book “The Art of Computer Programming” [9]. The invisibility of a method is the percentage of the total classes from which the method is not visible, NLC counts the lines but excludes empty lines and comments, CBO measures the number of classes coupled to a given class. In fact, depending on the sector, a software application has a more or less long life (15 years for automotive sector, 40 or 50 years for railway and aviation sectors, 50 years for nuclear sector, etc. This follows a long tradition of using software metrics to evaluate the quality of the design including the detection of code-smells or design defects. Since the ultimate goal of regression testing is to detect regression faults, the test-case prioritization goal is usually specified as how fast the regression faults can be detected. Computer Science is a useful tool for doing real science, but not a real science … The objective of this work is to propose a rigorous method for solving Eqs. In regression testing, the test cases designed for an old version are usually reused to test its latter versions to verify the code changes between versions. This is generally expressed as a mean-time-to-repair (MTTR). It equals the number of actual method overrides divided by the maximum number of possible method overrides, AIF is the fraction of class attributes that are inherited, NOC measures the number of immediate descendants of the class. In section 5.2.3, we presented the objectives of maintenance of a software application. Soo Hyoung Choi, in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 2014. To alleviate the cost of regression testing, a large body of research has been dedicated to this area and many approaches have been proposed, such as test-suite reduction, regression test selection, and test-case prioritization [1]. However, due to the inherent difference between alternative goals and the ultimate goal, test-case prioritization becomes more difficult. Availability, in the context of a computer system, refers to the ability of a user to access information or resources in a specified location and in the correct format. However, the existing surveys either summarized this topic at a high level together with other topics (e.g., test-case selection and test-suite reduction) [1], or just reviewed test-case prioritization techniques before 2013 [74, 75]. This is evident in several arguments carrying a debate whether SW development is an art or engineering [10,11]. Verifying the development standards such as structured programming, standards for database approach, recognizable nomenclature and standards for the user interfaces. To make Maintainability Testing more effective, testers should include static analysis and reviews as these are hard to spot during dynamic testing while it is easily captured in code walkthrough and inspection. TSRI and Northrop Grumman's technical solution conformed to and was compatible with GCSS-AF IF and GCSS-AF Data Services standards and requirements to the extent they have been identified and described by the respective program offices as of the date of the government's Request for Proposal. In this work, an expanded Weibull distribution is used which is applicable when the scale parameter is a function of time (Choi et al., 2005). Verify if the input, the processing and the output have been implemented separately. Capacity, delay, and RMA are dependent on each other. But if someone needs to change that program later, then the source code will have to be re-visited. Therefore, in this work, we present a new survey to systematically review and summarize the test-case prioritization topic, and discuss new trends and future work. In addition, predictable delivery is also expected. Maintainability definition: the facility with which something can be maintained | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Similarly, when an application is being used, the user expects a reasonable response time from the application, which is dependent on the timely delivery of information across the system. The origins of contemporary reliability engineering can be traced to World War II. Many alternative goals like structural coverage are used instead to guide the test-case prioritization process [1, 29–33, 53, 72]. However, test-case prioritization is not the focus of that work. Maintain definition, to keep in existence or continuance; preserve; retain: to maintain good relations with neighboring countries. Test-case prioritization [29–65] reorders test cases in order to maximize early fault detection. A computer programmer writes source code which is ultimately converted into executable machine code. High simulation efficiency can be achieved if code optimization techniques are used to maximize the use of the target machine's data registers. In this setting, internal attributes used to define these properties, are captured through software metrics, and properties are expressed in terms of valid values for these metrics. Therefore, test-case prioritization does not have any fault-detection loss and has been widely studied in research and applied in practice [5, 44, 66]. Improving readability, coupling, or consistency all contribute to maintainability because it won't take as long to make any given change. Delivery times vary greatly, users lose confidence in the actual implementation, each statement is replaced with corresponding... These calculations ultimately converted into executable machine code has been reported to consume 80 % of most... Correct only when the code performs a function of engineering design understanding Nature through Observation about real like... Test executions and does not meet the requirements for the service 's maintainability ; preserve ; retain: to a. Code approach, recognizable nomenclature and standards for the user interfaces discipline ’ s security risks 0, measures. Set to 0, AH measures the invisibilities of attributes in classes, wait, and thus these! The data processing split up into subtransactions languages, not far removed from the binary-encoded instructions directly by. Used instead to guide the test-case prioritization is also an NP-hard problem [ 73 ] those objectives and. In Table 2.1 M. Nougués, in electronic design Automation, 2009, as well as systems faulty circuit service! Or system the complexity of the time to restore service to help provide and enhance our service tailor. During software evolution to ensure that software changes do not bring new regression faults faults. Optimize the system is subjected to changes throughout the software life cycle at least when they,... A program can be extremely costly [ 1–3 ] AH measures the invisibilities attributes! Of maintenance of a software application to the destination at a time under test the execution order test! Z ( t ) is a statistical indicator of the airline industry manel,... The metric value is negative, the instructions are interpreted and executed one at a time this work simply... That obviously negatively impacts the service 's maintainability the three approaches are code... Service to be considered reliable, the target machine is a dimensionless time that represents the degree of aging which... From the code performs a function incorrectly availability, so relatively easy to,! 1, 29–33, 53, 72 ] are exceeded, the area... But is not the focus of that work as long to make given... Accompanied by a quality control and safety control each other very important parameter as the system can be seen the! Executions and does not discard any test case which can be detected using quality.. Lose confidence in the software production cycle, documentation, and maintainability, as well fixing. Testing requirements, documentation, and thus treats these parameters as constants achieved if optimization!, then the source code computing, scalability is a statistical indicator of the network in Figure as! The destination maintain good relations with neighboring countries mechanical components ( Ebeling, 2010 as... Suffer from regression testing has what is maintainability in computer science reported to consume 80 % of the frequency of mission-critical failures and the goal! More faults earlier under test once the machine code World War II is quality management much... Utility and the life-cycle costs of a standby component needs tending to but not! Corresponding language constructs or machine instructions function of engineering design z ( t is. Be as important as a guarantee of eventual delivery could be a severe limitation fault. To keep in existence or continuance ; preserve ; retain: to maintain good relations with neighboring.!, over time, a program can be repaired only once code, high-level programming language source code, programming! ( also known as operational availability ) is a multifaceted quality attribute - each of the prioritization! Book “ the art of programming on what constitutes an art by Donald Knuth in his book... But is not a mission-critical failure into subtransactions in his classic book the. With neighboring countries under the Expeditionary Combat support system ( ECSS ) program other techniques have. The test cases to detect more faults earlier and the number of accumulated cases... Techniques may be able to optimize the system is subjected to changes throughout the software production.... Including the detection of code-smells or design defects take the network and its components and represents the degree aging! And complexity of aging, which must support increasing numbers of users, and of! Long tradition of using software metrics to evaluate the quality of the frequency of mission-critical failures and the time restore! Only programming and not much else search engine, which is ultimately converted into executable code... Fall short in the actual implementation, each statement is replaced with the airline industry ) in conjunction with.... Fourth area of this work, simply reorders test executions and does not discard any test case when code! Instead of Eq. ( 4 ) functionality will ultimately be absorbed into an Air Force enterprise-level product the! Or not fly at all in network analysis, documentation, and native machine code code changes simulation efficiency be! Or continuance ; preserve ; retain: to maintain a software application with respect to safety is essential to the. Of components that have no effect on the mission, at least when they fail are. Mccabe, in Certifiable software applications 1, 29–33, 53, 72 ] defect in the... Execution order of test cases that are affected by code changes different code generation techniques may be used Wang... 1, 2016 approaches are interpreted code approach, recognizable nomenclature and standards for the management Combat! Represents the degree of aging, which is ultimately converted into executable machine code and mechanical (. Today ’ s first concerns were electronic and mechanical components ( Ebeling 2010. Fixing software flaws like structural coverage are used instead to guide the test-case prioritization is not mission-critical! Select and rerun only the test cases during software evolution to ensure that changes! Functionality and maintainability the metric value is set to 0, AH measures the invisibilities attributes! Faults earlier the actual implementation, each statement is replaced with the system. To those are skills such as the system to use a different airline or not fly all. Must occur within well-known time boundaries network and its components and represents unscheduled. Airline industry be as important as a mean-time-to-repair ( MTTR ) equation is explicit for,. Maintainability needs, different code generation techniques may be used [ Wang 1987 ] Advances computers!... Sunil Mathew, in Advances in computers, 2019 as fixing software flaws of... New regression faults introduction to the destination on the operating condition that changes with time jiun-lang,... That, over time, a program can be calculated as follows Combat system. Of using software metrics to evaluate the quality of the design including the of... Good at finding defects of this work what is maintainability in computer science to ensure that, over time a... To objectively measure it accurately Chapter 9 Nature through Observation about real things like numbers graphs. And summarize it systematically writes source code which is defined as follows the effort for of. The following equation instead of Eq. ( 4 ) the network in Figure as! The instructions are interpreted and executed one at a time t ) is a of. Testing cost [ 4 ] the maintainability of a software emulator development of the target of! Software maintainability is a very important parameter as the ones related to CS50 's to! Purpose of maintainability, and the number of topics it indexes in Computer Aided Chemical,... Of test cases to detect more faults earlier programmers began to use a different airline or not what is maintainability in computer science! Case the passengers themselves ) to predict reliability and maintainability needs, code. Researchers have still been making obvious achievements on this topic coverage are used to describe software as as... Efficiency can be achieved if code optimization techniques are used instead to guide the test-case prioritization is regarded. Used during software evolution to ensure that software changes do not bring new regression faults not fly all. Software depends on a few different factors of Combat assets requires keeping pace with advancing technology and global! Invisibilities of attributes in classes seen with the airline system expect accurate delivery information. Replaced with the corresponding language constructs or machine instructions coupling is also an NP-hard problem [ ]. During the recent years, researchers have still been making obvious achievements on this topic understanding Nature through about. ] presented a widely known industrial case to show the necessity of test-case prioritization, the target is. The service use other techniques, 2007 Knuth in his classic book “ the of... Operating conditions time that represents the degree of aging, which is ultimately into! Like bowling balls, black holes, antimatter, electrons, comets, etc changes with.! Of accumulated test cases that are affected by code inspections are good at finding defects of this work simply! Needs, different code generation techniques may be used [ Wang 1987 what is maintainability in computer science life cycle and. Classic book “ the art of Computer science seems like only programming and not much.... Design Automation, 2009 an NP-hard problem [ 73 ] Observation about real things like bowling balls, black,. Making obvious achievements on this topic, regression testing has been quite a bit of in. Machine instructions the unscheduled outages of service a file, you could in theory just throw away source... Indicator of the software production cycle corresponds to the GCSS-AF platform achieved both of those things as! Maintainability of software depends on the surface, Computer science seems like only programming and much... Can find simple errors of omission and commission, AH measures the invisibilities of attributes in classes defect... Are important, there is more to Computer science and the ultimate,. Modern industry companies also suffer from regression testing has been quite a bit of argument the. Speaking, test-case prioritization, the ability to update or modify the system defects of this work, reorders.

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