I can see an obvious mechanism for this, especially with relatively understudied families: your pet language is the only one well enough described for the archaic feature you are obsessing about to have actually been documented. You could probably clear this up if you had some examples with goats. Apparently not, though I had originally misremembered him as one of the clan. Not Geoffrey Francis Fisher, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1945 to 1961, therefore? Anything with more than one link, or anything with one link that gets edited, is sent into moderation. There is no “responsa in Hebrew-glossed Slavic”. Anggarrgoon You can go further and say that Bantu A and much of Bantu B are the outliers for a True-Bantu doll.). South Arabian and Yemeni Dialects1 ABSTRACT It has traditionally been assumed that with the Islamic conquests Arabic overwhelmed the original ancient languages of the Peninsula, leaving the language situation in the south-western Arabian Peninsula as one in which dialects of Arabic No archbishops, though. Is it feasible to update publication time when approving? Russian Word of the Day Some time ago I also used to change views with a guy who thinks Semitic broke up in Ethiopia and crossed north from there in multiple waves, one perhaps clockwise around the Red Sea; but this never got developed in good enough detail and I kind of suspect Teeter’s Law (he’s Tigrinya and talks up a lot the diversity of “Afro-Semitic”) and/or overapplied decolonial theory (he has tended to spend a lot of time on how racist Africanists of yore were vs. not that much on why exactly their views were wrong). Songdog They expressed details to humans by eye movement, looking in the direction of different foods or doorways and then back at you, but between themselves – and besides the social subtleties of butting – there always seemed to be subliminal interactions that were harder for me to identify. But the vocabulary is very different.” […] “There are sounds in Shahri that we think existed in an ancestor language called proto-Semitic, but which have been lost in Arabic, Hebrew and Amharic (a language of Ethiopia),” says Aaron Rubin, of Penn state. Russian Dinosaur Strong Language ("a sweary blog about swearing"), Language resources: “If you look at the Semitic languages as a family tree, you will see that the Modern South Arabian languages diverged from the rest of the Semitic languages a long time ago,” he said in an interview. Slavenitsa (converts from modern Russian to pre-reform orthography) Swahili is a Bantu language and … Language Log In active discussions, sometimes a delay means that a comment appears pages above the apparent end of thread. The young men at prestigious companies might marry their female coworkers, not because they’re clever, but just because they’re the ones around. The note is credited to Shabbetai’s father Meyer “Katz” (Kohen Tzedek) Ashkinazi, who spent his late years in Mogilev in today’s Eastern Belarus, then on the Eastern-most fringes of the Ashkenazi Jewish settlement area , having been invited from Frankfurt area to spread wisdom in the East. You could create exactly the same sort of illusion for the Tarim-Liffey languages by drawing a map detailing all the Germanic languages with all their dialects in detail along with some big labels for “Slavonic”, “Italic”, “Indic” etc. not like Niger-Congo, where all the outliers are concentrated on the northern edge, This is an artefact of the tail-wagging-the-dog notion still all too unthinkingly propagated that gives Bantu (a subgroup of a subgroup) a primacy in reconstruction of Niger-Congo for which there is no evidence. Instead, a lone word is glossed, and it’s a Slavic toponym. The others are Bathari, Harsusi, Hobyot, Mehri and Socotri (spoken on the island of Socotra). Other works on by the same author include “The Jibbali (Shahri) Language of Oman: Grammar and Texts” (specifically relevant to the OP), and a work he co-edited and co-introduced, “Handbook of Jewish Languages”. Mongolian/English dictionary Is that right? Russian translation of shkolnik, служка, is a full equivalent of shamash, but gabbai is used in Russian primarily as a Karaite title. The comment I posted had one link, and the whole thing disappeared as soon as I posted it (so no editing took place). It’s unclear how many people speak these languages, since Oman, like many countries in the region, has never conducted a census, but experts estimate the total numbers of speakers of these languages in the tens of thousands. Documentation concerning these languages is not abundant, and even more limited is our knowledge of the history of their interaction with Arabic. There are also pockets of Arabic speakers in Venezuela (110,000) and Suriname (1,000). I imagine some men appreciate the extra power kick in the idea of subduing a woman smarter than they are. Citrus Moon I’ve seen/heard “Skolnik” (or some variant) as a family name. ), no man worth bothering with for a moment wants a stupid woman as a wife. Hindi is also spoken in the United Arab Emirates and Mauritius. later on Hill promises to discuss “East Judeo-Slavic” spanning a later era up to XVII c., of which to my knowledge nothing exists but a lone XVII c. note in one of 9 documents appended to Wilno rabbi Shabbetai haKohen’s treatise on the halacha. It is a fact well known to the medical profession that doctors marry either nurses, other doctors, or barmaids. Did she never read the final copy and ask for a correction? Most of these texts were written in variants of Musnad… The project was funded by the Leverhulme Trust. Here’s a sample: >“There is an unhappy wizard in the Goblet of Fire who sadly is unable to attend the Triwizard Tournament, suffering from a condition named “lumbago.” For this medical term we have the common expression ‘Hexenschuss’ – witches’ shot. I must practice my parallel programming skills. Das Deutsche Wörterbuch von Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm I’ve recently learned that many women of various fundamentalist stripes study that to better educate their own children, whom they expect to have promptly after they’ve married and become housewives. Dicționare ale limbii române The Cassandra Pages Bʋkaŋa la pʋ zi’eya. OT/BDT (Off Topic/But Down Thread, so maybe it’s okay …), An article on the difficulties of translation, from that old favorite of linguists and intellectuals everywhere – Entertainment Weekly: These languages belong to the Southern Peripheral cluster of Semitic languages, along with Geʿez, Amharic, Tigré, Tigrinya, and the other Semitic languages of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Sudan; the similarities of the languages in this cluster have prompted proposals of a genetic grouping known as South or … Just like Yinglish, there was a variety of Yiddish-infused Russian dialects, with peculiar grammar often showing Ukrainian influences as well, peculiar phonetics (part-reflected in spelling since Russian spellings hew closer to phonetics) and borrowings (some of which permeated slang and over time became mainstream if low-register Russian words, like хохма or шмон). Sentence first Both the north and south Arabian language groups developed their own alphabet and script. In the South of the Arabian Peninsula, in the Republic of the Yemen and in the Sultanate of Oman, live some 200,000 Arabs whose maternal language is not Arabic but one of the so- called Modern South Arabian Languagues (MSAL). While the latter is unfortunately just a ToC, it includes a chapter titled “Jewish Russian”, by Anna Verschik, followed immediately by “Judeo-Slavic”, by Brad Sabin Hill. The Unesco Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger identifies Shahri as one of six languages in this group. Perseus Digital Library 4.0 When that place, which at one point was a river delta, became one of the driest on Earth, some of the people moved north and founded East Semitic, while others moved south and founded West/Rest Semitic. Old South Arabian comprised a number of languages; the following are those that have been preserved in writing (the dates follow the so-called long chronology). There’s more on the South Arabian languages at the link, as well as two clips of Shahri being spoken. Balashon It must be either a relatively recent creation, or have been extensively and repeatedly remodelled by analogy. My co-investigators are Dr Miranda Morris, University of St Andrews, Dr Domenyk Eades, Melbourne, Australia and Dr Alex Bellem, Durham University. Classical Arabic (CA) or Quranic Arabic is more common in literature and writing. Our other official languages are isiXhosa (spoken by 16%), Afrikaans (13.5%), English (10%), Sesotho sa Leboa (9%), Setswana and Sesotho (both 8%), Xitsonga (4.5%), siSwati and Tshivenda (both 2.5%), and isiNdebele (2%). If your preferred feed is Twitter, you can follow @languagehat to get links to new posts here as they appear. Mormons, Yimas … truly, all men are brothers. There, a Jewish witness retells what a Christian witness of a murder said, in Belorussian recorded with Hebrew characters. So does she.”, that L.D.S. Early Southern Arabian languages and classical Arabic sources : a critical examination of literary and lexicographical sources by comparison with the inscriptions. Add the link last, when you are sure everything else is right! Chinese Character Dictionary David: I think you are a little unfair, the author refers several times to the difficulty involved in separating inherited and diffused changes. How to be polite and show respect. View Academics in Modern South Arabian Languages on Academia.edu. Collectively, these languages are called the Modern South Arabian languages. Cornish dictionary online Greek language and linguistics The Fate of Books The young men at prestigious companies might marry their female coworkers, not because they’re clever, but just because they’re the ones around. The earliest form of North Arabian (Proto-Arabic) texts, dating back to the eighth century B.C., were found in eastern Saudi Arabia. As a closeted gay graduate student who was nevertheless an R.M., I found the sociology fascinating. Germanic outliers … Tower of Babel etymological database There is also an extant Russian idiom of Israel, grammatically and phonetically quite correct but heavy on borrowings (мазган!). Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Wikimedia Commons Category Old South Arabian languages. It’s in all likelihood a transitional immigrant dialect, too, but we will know better in 30 or 40 years. As a student of Arabic, I learned how the ancient grammarians built the rules of standard Arabic from the speech of the desert Arabs. It's a beacon of attentiveness and crisp thinking, and an excellent substitute for the daily news.". It means . In this second case, the text is 100% Slavic, w/o a “Judeo” part. Russian roots and Yemen's Socotra language: Socotri's origins are close to the oldest written Semitic tongues that died out thousands of years ago. Very beautiful when the sun shone. Laudator Temporis Acti (The name Jibbali is derived from the Arabic word for mountain.) Old South Arabian is not completely extinct in the modern era, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Razihi_language. I discovered this truly delightful map of Niger-Congo the other day, which rather than assigning a different color to each group, assigns colors to non-Atlantic-Congo, non-Volta-Congo, non-Benue-Congo, non-Bantoid, non-Bantu, and Bantu, showing the Russian-doll structure of Niger-Congo, where at each level Bantu there are a few outlier groups and languages and then the great bulk of the languages and speech areas are in the next level, or doll. It is thought to have diverged from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet as early as 1300 BC, and a developing form appeared in Babylonia and near Elath of the Gulf of Aqaba around the 8th/7th centuries BC. Arnold Zwicky's list of blogs and resources It worked very well – lots of young factory girls married young air force lieutenants to everyone’s satisfaction. IsiZulu is South Africa’s biggest language, spoken by almost a quarter (23%) of the population. The Millions Ṣayhadic. XIX век I was duped by a popular misinterpretation of R. Katz’s passage which travels from one study to another without assessing the original. An ka taa (resources and lessons for Bambara, Dioula, Malinké, and Mandinka) Is “shkol” the Russian/Slavic word for “shul”? The Modern South Arabian, or Eastern South Semitic, languages are a branch of Semitic languages. Arabic (alongside English) was an official language in South Sudan from 1863 (these days a part of Egypt Eyalet (1517–1867)) until 2011 (that time the independent state Republic of South Sudan), when the former government canceled Arabic as an official language. Ethnologue Digital Dictionaries of South Asia According to Dr Al Jahdhami, these languages belong to three groups: Kamzari, Lawati, and Balochi belong to the Indo-Iranian language's family, while Harsusi, Bathari, Hobyot, Mehri, and Jabbali belong to the modern South Arabian languages. The Arrowsmith translation has the hero of The Acharnians say about his wife: “The dawn comes up like thunder. Aristophanes’ Frogs starts with fart jokes. already had it, given how rare it is in the oldest texts and how old it could be in Romance. I know who you mean. I just saw Tarkovsky’s last movie, Offret/The Sacrifice, and at one point a completely unmotivated flock of sheep wandered across the field of view, bleating. Germanic Lexicon Project South Arabian languages have some distinct phonological features, like preserving lateral fricatives; the pronounciation of the letter "L" with air coming from both sides of the tongue. Jabal al-Lughat . Orbis Latinus The sheep around here make deep, stentorian roars. Vocabolario Etimologico della Lingua Italiana The principal aims of the project were to compile and archive a l… women went for their “M.R.S.” degree, read as three letters. Avva (Russian) beadle (Wikipedia says the Hebrew terms are gabbai or shamash)? bleating . Define Old South Arabian languages. Shahri, also known as Jibbali, is language that is spoken mainly in a remote mountainous region of Dhofar province. Same as modern Greek sheep go vi, vi. Character converter, Visual pleasures The Modern South Arabian languages are spoken in southern Arabia and on the island of Socotra. Ramage Philology.ru A Skolnick was my genetics mentor. The Ramsey number “solves the party problem”, Small parties are always the best. Словарь русских народных говоров [Russian dialect dictionary] It’s clear that Mehri, Harsusi, and Bathari are closely related, but the common elements in all six may well be shared retentions: there is no clear evidence of shared innovations, nor of any shared innovations between MSA and Ethiopic Semitic. Northern Najdi is spoken in Qaseem, Jabal Shamaar, and Zufi regions in Saudi Najd. Dictionnaires d'autrefois Or at least, a comment with a link disappeared for a while before resurfacing.]. The note is credited to Shabbetai’s father Meyer “Katz” (Kohen Tzedek) Ashkinazi, who spent his late years in Mogilev in today’s Eastern Belarus, then on the Eastern-most fringes of the Ashkenazi Jewish settlement area , having been invited from Frankfurt area to spread wisdom in the East. And if your comment ever does not appear, you can always e-mailed Hat to let him know he has something in the moderation queue. TITUS: Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien Nişanyan's Turkish Etymological Dictionary The law prescribed how many Jewish houses of prayer can be in a shtetle, depending on its population, and 2 “schools” were equivalent to 1 synagogue. beadle (Wikipedia says the Hebrew terms are gabbai or shamash)? After a bit of fossicking, I’ve remembered that the sickeningly polymathic family that was at the back of my mind were the children of Herbert William Fisher: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_William_Fisher. But there’s good reason (or at least an argument not to be cursorily dismissed) to suppose that in the verbal system in particular this is the result of innovation, welding previously independent pronouns and particles to verb words, not an ancient morphological survival. MacBain's Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language (1911 edition) Yup. This is how phylogenetics worked in biology, too, back when it was an art: authors who understood the difficulties perfectly well drastically simplified these difficulties into reasons for considering a very small part of the evidence and discarding all the rest. ), I kind of suspect Teeter’s Law (he’s Tigrinya and talks up a lot the diversity of “Afro-Semitic”). Word Routes Languagehat.com does not endorse any potential defamatory opinions of readers, and readers should post opinions regarding third parties at their own risk. Wiktionary To put it fractionally more succintly: there is indeed a significant decrease in diversity of structure within Niger-Congo as you go southward, but it’s not because the northern languages are outliers: it’s because the southern languages all belong to a single twig of the tree which has expanded over a huge geographical area comparatively recently. The sci.lang FAQ And I’m glad to be introduced to the Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. Language Miniatures I owe the observations on the cry of the sheep to Erasmus, that fine zoologist. Alexander Beider carefully debunks it in “Origins of Yiddish Dialects” (Oxford University Press, 2015). Wortschatz Deutsch There I met a young man who told me he spoke a local language that was not Arabic. Is “shkol” the Russian/Slavic word for “shul”? This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. In a way those could be called mariages de convenance, if it is permitted this once to mistranslate “convenance” as “convenience”. Hill promises to discuss “East Judeo-Slavic” spanning a later era up to XVII c. An addendum from Alexander Beider: Brad Sabin Hill discusses another Hebrew-glossed Slavic line also linked to the legacy of R. Katz of Mogilev, and first discussed by Dubnow in “Jewish Antiquities” 1909 (1), 15. Besides these, at least Razihi may be a surviving Old South Arabian language. I learned that the story was not that simple many years later in Oman, when I travelled from Muscat to the sultanate’s southern province of Dhofar, a region separated from the capital by 1,000 kilometers of mostly featureless flat land. Is that right? Green's Dictionary of Slang Basically R. Katz, a Westerner, gripes that the Jews of Mogilev can’t stick to proper Yiddish and instead use Russian, as in using a toponym Brest for a town the Jews should properly call Brisk. Like the Ramsays (as in numbers and Archbishops. American Heritage Dictionary If it starts with a fart joke, things can only get better, right? Minority Languages of Russia Speakers. Razihi (Rāziḥī) is a South Semitic language spoken by at least 62,900 people in the vicinity of Mount Razih (Jabal Razih) in the far northwestern corner of Yemen. Λεξικό της κοινής νεοελληνικής [Modern Greek Dictionary] (comprehensive; includes etymologies) Cambridge International Dictionary of Idioms Dictionnaire de l’Académie francaise They are spoken by a small number of people in Southern Arabia in the countries of Yemen and Oman, as well as Socotra Island. The Ramsey number “solves the party problem”. Doing that just postpones moderation until the timer expires. A very dated mainstream-American version of this is “going to college to get your M.R.S.”, @X, when I did my graduate work at BYU, I heard more people use the sexist line that L.D.S. * He and his brothers talked about Bobruisk as being part of the Ukraine, not White Russia. I would consider also a pilot expansion model: East Semitic heads north along the same route as Central Semitic, just a millennium or so earlier, so as to create (1) a trail of related varieties that can be easily assimilated entirely under a CSem. Very true. Trésor de la langue française informatisé Dizy: Il dizionario pratico con curiosità e informazioni utili I think the other factors may include the length of the comment, the age of the original post, the number of previous comments to the original post, the number of previous comments made by the commentator, the character sets used in the comment, certain words used in the comment, whether approval has been given previously, and for all I know, the phase of the moon and whether a carp has been properly sacrificed to the Highest God. Wikipedia . But such things are capable of areal spread just like phonological and phonetic innovations. Wuthering Expectations MetaFilter Along with Faifi, it is possibly the only surviving descendant of the Old South Arabian languages.. David, not necessarily. But, but, but, there are no shared innovations (that I know of) between Modern South Arabian and Ethiopic. It’s got something for everybody. Your comment that I replied to has now disappeared. Omniglot Poemas del río Wang Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary My name is Steve Dodson; I'm a retired copyeditor currently living in western Massachusetts after many years in New York City. Logeion (Greek-to-English and Latin-to-English dictionary search) Four languages are commonly subsumed under ASA: Sabaic, Minaic, Qatabanic and … Next, its practically complete replacement of an inherited past tense in French and Upper German has identifiable internal motivations on both sides, but the geography makes that suspicious – some or all of the internal motivations could be motivations for borrowing instead of for an internal development. BibleOnline Lizok's Bookshelf Or at least, a comment with a link disappeared for a while before resurfacing. It’s the Central Semitic languages (Arabic, Aramaic, Hebrew, and their extinct relatives) that are clearly innovative, and the rest are just various leftover groups that don’t really fit together. It depends on what you mean by “shared”, I suppose. David Eddyshaw: “even that somewhat curdled take on the phenomenon would at least reflect an appreciation on the part of Korean manhood that clever girls are worth catching.”. Central Najdi is an urban dialect spoken in Saudi Arabia’s capital. Also “Arabian” might tend to confuse people into thinking that they are a subset of Arabic. Transblawg The Flaxen Wave I thought the language of the Qur’an and of classical Arabic literature was an only child: I knew it had ancestors, but I didn’t know it had any living relatives. The link posted by Savalonôs is to a work by Aaron Rubin (one of the linguists who contributed to the OP). Ru_slang (Russian) Diccionari català Dictionary of the Scots Language Few people would consider Yinglish a “Judeo-English”, and the same ought to apply to the transitional Russian dialects which similarly didn’t last and weren’t meant to last. Category:sem-srb:All topics: Old South Arabian terms organized by topic, such as "Family" or "Chemistry". It is one of a handful of related languages spoken in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula that are distinct from Arabic, and are mostly unintelligible to speakers of the majority language. Dick & Garlick I was told this was a reason for South Korean female higher education. On the one hand, he absolutely has a point that “Afro-Semitic” is dramatically underresearched (one does not simply walk into Ethiopia); on the other, he has resorted to ideas like [f], widespread in Ethiopia, being a retention from Proto-Semitic and [p] being derived from [f] – the only way to get that to work would be a substrate strong enough to completely destroy the famous Semitic grammar. […]. I strongly suspect that this appearance of uniqueness in antiqueness is simply an artefact of the relevant formations having been missed in other Western Oti-Volta languages. You will not only get your purchases, you will get my blessings and a karmic boost! Национальный корпус русского языка (Corpus of the Russian Language) Indeed. I believe that the caprine vocal apparatus has been shown to be incapable of producing doubly articulated consonants. The Untranslated Thesaurus Linguae Latinae (Open Access PDF version of volumes A - M and O - P) The Calvert Journal ("a daily briefing on the culture and creativity of modern Russia"), Linguablogs: Yes it is a fairly common “professional” surname; Yad Vashem has over 70 pages of Skolnicks/Shkolniks among the genocide victims…. I believe that this is generally discounted as not meaning much, on the grounds that it’s not difficult to imagine it happening independently (Central Semitic also levelled, but the other way, after all.) https://www.thefreedictionary.com/South+Arabian+languages, (Peoples) a native or inhabitant of South Arabia, According to Dr Al Jahdhami, these languages belong to three groups: Kamzari, Lawati, and Balochi belong to the Indo-Iranian language's family, while Harsusi, Bathari, Hobyot, Mehri, and Jabbali belong to the modern, The discussions focused on a wide range of topics such as "The Modern, Discussions focused on a wide range of topics such as 'The Modern, 135-44) stands out for its innovative use of fieldwork and technology to address a thorny historical problem, namely the historical articulation of two phonemes in Proto-Semitic and its daughter languages, such as Arabic and the Modern, JEDDAH: IBRAHIM NAFEEIt would be difficult to save several endangered, She offers a descriptive account of two dialects of Mehri, with reference to Yemeni Mehri and four of the other five Modern, 11, 31, 62), an idea that goes back to his 1989 article in which he shows that there are a number of features that potentially can be interpreted as displaying not only "Yemeni" but also features of, A specialist in Semitic languages, Rubin (Pennsylvania State U.) DWDS (Der deutsche Wortschatz von 1600 bis heute) ScriptSource This usually takes several hours. Najdi has four major sub-dialects, which include Northern Najdi, Central Najdi, Southern Najdi, and Badawi Najdi. My own impression is that Oti-Volta as a group is pretty conservative (possibly illustrating Teeters’s Law, I guess, but …) The crucial comparative work on proto-Oti-Volta is all there still waiting to be done: the standard references are still the many-decades-old work on “Gur” of Gabriel Manessy, who achieved much and had the right ideas but was working with vastly less extensive data than are now available and made some stonking methodological errors. Real Academia dictionary (Spanish) Is that the sound Kusaal-speaking goats make? Also MSA so much means Modern Standard Arabic that any other name for the group would be better. (And otherwise we have to try to destroy the alien. Because, you know, any men worth having won’t marry stupid women. Commented-On Language Hat Posts (courtesy of J.C.; contains useful Random Link feature). The desert is on the undefined border between Yemen and Saudi Arabia; the WP article on it says it “extends from al-Khawr to the edge of the Rub’ al-Khālī or Empty Quarter.”. dic.academic.ru (Russian dictionary search) ), If you're feeling generous: Didn’t anybody ever write Russian in Hebrew letters? This is the main category of the Old South Arabian languages. South Africa’s second-largest language, Xhosa is spoken by 17.6% of all South Africans, or 7 907 149 people. It would be difficult to save several endangered south Arabian languages, including one spoken only by a small community in the far southeast of Saudi Arabia, a renowned linguist said Wednesday. Большой толково-фразеологический словарь Михельсона (1896-1912) Still it’s fascinating to think that somewhere in far-flung Lithuania, some – quite likely a Jew – needed a comment on the Ashkenazi traditional law worded in Slavic. It is used in official capacityin North and Central India. expansion, (2) a relatively distinctive language boundary once only Akkadian in the far northeast is left. SFReader: “The entire point of it is to get a degree, work for a few years in a prestigious company, meet a promising young man, get married and become a housewife.” Far Outliers As Gertrude Stein used to say: plus ça change, plus c’est la même rose. Wordorigins Nick Jainschigg's blog Arak-29 (Armenian links) TypeIt (IPA keyboards, language character sets) And she seems to have a remarkable number of Korean friends …), Actually, even that somewhat curdled take on the phenomenon would at least reflect an appreciation on the part of Korean manhood that clever girls are worth catching. I used to think that Arabic was the only language native to the Arabian Peninsula. Old South Arabian languages synonyms, Old South Arabian languages pronunciation, Old South Arabian languages translation, English dictionary definition of Old South Arabian languages. живал: зарезали яго як куры резав… там богаты мужики не бардзо везьмут ~~ Your synagogue assistant, who used to live at the synagogue compound, they slaughtered him like they slaughter hens … there are rich peasants (or many peasants) who wouldn’t take much [to do it?]. So the old wise man was just dissing the local usage for a misplaced reason, and then the modern researchers made (as both Ashkenazi and Slavs would say) an elephant out of a fly (which would be a mountain out of a molehill in English). Her significant other is pursuing a PhD which involves Python and Latin; I feel he is Worthy. And with the working hours they have to put up with, they might not have time to look for potential wives elsewhere. Indeed it does. etymologiebank.nl (Dutch etymology) Only messages signed "languagehat" are property of and attributable to languagehat.com. It is a regional language, with a third of its speakers living in the Eastern Cape, where it is the language of 83.4% of the provincial population. Other articles where Modern South Arabian languages is discussed: None How about the first-ever study of Judeo-Urdu? I’ve come across the idea that Proto-Semitic was spoken in the Rub al-Khali. What I found fascinating were the EE/EE dances, specifically held for Elecrrical Engineering and Elementary Education majors – large programs with severe gender imbalances. The English present-perfect tense has analogs all over Northwest Germanic today, but that is a borrowing from Romance, which in turn got it from Greek; and while I suppose it could be a borrowing into Proto-West-Germanic, I’d be quite surprised if Proto-NW-Gmc. Najdi Arabic is used as the first language in the central region of Saudi Arabia with a total of about 8 million speakers. Here‘s a direct link to Etienne’s comment. (Need to wash my mouth out after all that Mormonspeak.). Aaron Rubin, a professor of linguistics at Penn State University in the United States and the author of a grammar of Shahri/Jibbali, explains that the Modern South Arabian languages are a branch of the Semitic languages group that includes Arabic and Hebrew. Not Geoffrey Francis Fisher, Archbishop of Canterbury. ; Category:Terms derived from Old South Arabian: Categories with terms derived from Old South Arabian in various specific languages. Wikipedia:Reference desk/Language There was a large center of textile industry in central Russian city of Ivanovo with such overwhelmingly female (and quite young) labor force that it got a nickname – “bride town”. Arabic belongs to the Semitic language group, as does Hebrew. Well, if “Modern South Arabian” isn’t really a clade, then maybe “Eastern South Semitic” communicates the appropriate level of vagueness. BTW, as useful as this introduction is, its discussion of the evidence in terms of “what is reliable, and what must be ignored” reminds me of the 1950s in biology. But they were universally glossed in Cyrillics, and universally derided as illiterate. I am fairly confident that my daughter does not read this blog; if I’m wrong, we may be in for a flame war … (she lacks my invariable concern for courtesy above all. The dialectology of Arabic itself sure looks close enough to something like this… but maybe that’s actually rather due to substrate effects. As Tom Güldemann has pointed out, the very regularity and transparency of the agglutinative Bantu verbal system is a strong argument against it being a survival from proto-Niger-Congo. (I don't otherwise participate in Twitter. My great-grandfather (the one who was president of the Workers’ Circle in Chicago) said he spoke two languages back in Bobruisk*: Yiddish and Russian. The two words are full cognates of course, since Yiddish shul => Russian calque “shkola” (school). 1). In fact, if his classification is accepted, it seems well-nigh impossible to believe that the migrants who introduced Proto-Semitic into the Middle East could have arrived from Africa via a route near the Mediterranean. Because the dialects are mutually intelligible, we’ve combined them in this ranking. Anna Verschik has an Academia page as well, which includes works titled: “Yiddish, Jewish Russian, and Jewish Lithuanian in the Former Soviet Union” and “Jewish Russian and the field of ethnolect study”. Zhongwen.com (I am manfully resisting the temptation to wait ten minutes and then add a link for the evulz. Ἡλληνιστεύκοντος (in English) I think he would have scoffed at the notion of a Judeo-Russian dialect; the use of the specifically Jewish terminology in running Russian speech was just code switching into Yiddish. Mande is probably not related to Niger-Congo at all, and is therefore not an example of an outlier; and the connexion of (bits of) Kordofanian and Atlantic to core Niger-Congo is a long-range hypothesis right up there with Altaic, not a demonstrable fact like Indoeuropean. my Amazon wish list. Here is how Dubnow re-glossed it in Cyrillics: ваш школьник, что на школьном (дворе?) I’ve heard this about Japan too, by the way. : You are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix – to adapt the work; Under the following conditions: attribution – You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. Bʋkaŋa – this goat, but unfortunately “Structurally, Jibbali has straightforward similarities to other Semitic languages. Geburtstag, Surveying Patterns of Noun Plural in Jibbali, A Descriptive and Comparative Grammar of Andalusi Arabic, The latest on the Archaeology of southern Oman, South and Central Kalimantan Production Forest Project, South and East Mediterranean College of Oncology, South and Meso American Indian Rights Center, South and Southeast Asia Network for Environmental Education, South and West Yorkshire Multi-Modal Study, South Argentinean Lake Sediment Archives and Modelling, South Arm Peninsula Residents' Association, South Asia Alliance for Poverty Eradication, South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation, South Asia Conference of the Pacific Northwest, South Asia Cooperative Acquisitions Program, South Asia Ecumenical Partnership Program, South Asia Energy and Infrastructure Unit, South Asia Enterprise Development Facility, South Asia Forum for Infrastructure Regulation. https://ew.com/books/2018/10/19/harry-potter-translators/. Anything with more than one link, or anything with one link that gets edited, is sent into moderation, and has to be rescued manually by the blog owner. Only smaller congregations were officially designated as “prayer schools”, while the larger ones were officially “synagogues”. Boris Dralyuk Favorite rave review, by Teju Cole: South Arabian languages are remnants of non-Arabic languages on the Arabian peninsula; still these languages are related to Arabic.South Arabian languages are spoken in Yemen and Oman, by a total of 270,000. Haquelebac Since 2011 English is the sole official language of South Sudan. And you can support my book habit without even spending money on me by following my Amazon links to do your shopping (if, of course, you like shopping on Amazon); As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases (I get a small percentage of every dollar spent while someone is following my referral links), and every month I get a gift certificate that allows me to buy a few books (or, if someone has bought a big-ticket item, even more). That they specifically went to find an “R.M.” was a given, because young men who failed to “serve a mission” were less “worthy”. Goats have voices several octaves higher than sheep, at least the ones around here do. Although the city is quite centrally located in modern Belarus, they had all gotten out of the Russian empire by 1909. Philolog.ru LBG (Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität = Lexicon of Byzantine Greek) Strictly speaking it isn’t one of the degrees of the alphabetic soup, but stands for Returned Missionary. Старославянский словарь [Old Church Slavic dictionary] Ancient South Arabian (ASA) is a conventional term to designate the languages which were spoken and written in South Arabia, the territory of present‐day Yemen, between the early first millennium BCE and the late sixth century CE. Collectively, these languages are called the Modern South Arabian languages. ПоискСлов (Russian dictionary search) Surely the obvious hypothesis is that Semitic broke up in Central Semitic-land, with the homeland later innovating and the outliers (Mehri/Harsusi/Bathari, Jibbali, Soqotri, Hobyot, Proto-Ethiopic) not. I mean, like English. Newspaper articles on MSAL. On moderation: if you do not edit again after adding your one permitted link, you do not go into moderation no matter how many times you have already edited, a fact I used to advantage above. As with dogs, smells tell them an awful lot about what’s been going on. Not least because the author has consulted not one but two actual experts on the subject. Sorry for an extensive self quote. Someone should publish on the Odessa dialect and call it Judeo-Russian. I believe that was Newton’s 3rd Law of Translation – the conservation of puns. I’ve heard Old South Arabian also referred to as Ṣayhadic (no idea where that name comes from) and Wikipedia suggests Yemenite as another option. Word Oddities I’ve heard Old South Arabian also referred to as Ṣayhadic. When I asked to know more, he obligingly, and to my astonishment, spoke a sample of a language called Shahri, a linguistic rarity spoken by a few thousand people in this part of Arabia. For example: a closed but fairly large subgroup of Kusaal verbs have an imperfective form in *-ya rather than the default *-da, and I have found no description of anything similar in any other Western Oti-Volta language. Hindi is an Indo-European language spoken by about 550 million people in Asia. Russian language links This site is called Language Hat and it deals with many issues of a linguistic flavor. One of these languages—Bathari—is believed to be spoken by only 11 people. Arabic script is also used by 1/7th of the world’s population. Speculative Grammarian It sounded nothing like Arabic. Between January 2013 and December 2016, I led a 48-month project to document the four most endangered Modern South Arabian languages, eret (also known as Jibbali), Harsusi, Hobyot and Bathari, and collect additional texts on Mehri. These things take time …. A Dictionary of Tocharian B (with etymologies) an eudæmonist Millions of … Vasmer's etymological dictionary(Russian) Language References and Links Of course I used this funny coincidence with gusto. Furthermore, it’s doubtful that the six MSA languages are actually a clade. I used to have a plastic Fresnel lens stuck to the glass of the window in my living room. It means . Bʋsabilbamma la pʋ zi’e kpɛɛ. ), (I should perhaps explain, having just noticed that Wikipedia doesn’t, that FF was the first linguist to discover the Modern South Arabian languages.). For Modern South Arabian, the only alternative Wikipedia suggests is Eastern South Semitic, which I suppose is no more syllables than Modern South Arabian is. Bear in mind that Bantu has expanded over central and southern Africa in something less than three thousand years (much less, for most of its current range.). Mandarin is the most spoken dialect of the language and the official language of China. I should have thought of that. Nick Jainschigg Pilgrims at Mecca The Arabic language is the official language of Saudi Arabia, and the first language of nearly all native Saudi Arabians. A bit more than just a TOC. The inside joke in these Mormon parts of the world is that the girls go to college to get their R.M. a closed but fairly large subgroup of Kusaal verbs have an imperfective form in *-ya rather than the default *-da, and I have found no description of anything similar in any other Western Oti-Volta language. Russian literature online To an uninformed observer, it may sound like a prescriptivist observation of Russian or rather Belarussian borrowing. David: I think you are a little unfair, the author refers several times to the difficulty involved in separating inherited and diffused changes. UPDATE: Wrong, wrong, wrong! I was giving a lecture lately in which I had cause to mention Augustin-Jean Fresnel; I was happy to be able to tell the troops that he had a much more interesting younger brother, Fulgence, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulgence_Fresnel, (Actually they seem to have been one of those families. Still it’s fascinating to think that somewhere in far-flung Lithuania, some – quite likely a Jew – needed a comment on the Ashkenazi traditional law worded in Slavic. Old South Arabian languages synonyms, Old South Arabian languages pronunciation, Old South Arabian languages translation, English dictionary definition of Old South Arabian languages. Calling them outliers is putting the cart before the horse. wood s lot † Verb Conjugator It was used for writing the Yemeni Old South Arabic languages and eventually developed into a pre-classical form of Arabic alphabet, the Nabataean. Ṣayhadic, says the WP talk page, was a name proposed by A. F. L. Beeston “as a convenient term after the medieval name [Ṣayhad] for the desert Ramlat al-Sab´atayn where many inscriptions have been found”. As I have remarked on several occasions to my daughter, no man worth bothering with for a moment wants a stupid woman as a wife (and, I dare say, vice versa.) I like the counterclockwise-eastern-Semitic theory for imaginativeness, but I’d expect to then find some evidence for it from the usual stuff like placenames along the Gulf. All other messages and opinions expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily state or reflect those of languagehat.com. Articles in Arabic on the Modern South Arabian languages: مقالات باللغة العربية عن اللغات العربية الجنوبية الحديثة. [Addendum: on reading your post more carefully, I see that I am in fact agreeing with you. Romance.). The Arabic language is classified into three different forms: Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic and Dialectal (Colloquial) Arabic. offers a grammar of one of the six traditionally unwritten languages known collectively as the Modern, That said, the chapter is a nice overview of the Epigraphic, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Call to save 8 Omani languages from extinction, Experts examine language-nature relationship at QU symposium, QU-CAS hosts symposium on language and nature, Nicht nur mit Engelszungen: Beitrage zur semitischen Dialektologie--Festschrift fur Werner Arnold zum 60. electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language Multitran There are tantalising glimpses in the example sentences in some of the dictionaries …. Online Etymology Dictionary Or my Kriegspiel. who included HAL Fisher the historian and MP, an admiral, a chairman of Barclays Bank, the most celebrated editor of Tacitus (unfortunately killed in the Battle of Jutland), Ralph Vaughan Williams’ first wife and Charles Darwin’s daughter-in-law. John Cowan: I don’t want to toot my own horn too much here, but your comment to the effect that Modern South Arabian (=MSA) languages (and/or Ethiopian Semitic) may not form a genetic subgroup within Semitic is very interesting: If they indeed do not, this would seem to be *very* compatible with the scenario I suggested here (July 12 4:05 comment) involving the spread of Semitic out of Africa (and I meant “West Coast of Arabia” when I wrote “East Coast of Arabia”, nota bene): http://languagehat.com/natufian-origin-for-afroasiatic/. Other dialects include the Wu, Min, and Yue. The entire point of it is to get a degree, work for a few years in a prestigious company, meet a promising young man, get married and become a housewife. @Owlmirror: There are other things, besides having two HTML links that can push a comment to moderation. Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, https://ew.com/books/2018/10/19/harry-potter-translators/, https://www.academia.edu/2603460/The_subgrouping_of_the_Semitic_languages, https://brill.com/view/book/edcoll/9789004297357/B9789004297357_021.xml?lang=en, The Calvert Journal ("a daily briefing on the culture and creativity of modern Russia"), Arnold Zwicky's list of blogs and resources, Cambridge International Dictionary of Idioms, TITUS: Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien, American Heritage Dictionary Indo-European Roots Appendix, Andras Rajki's Etymological Dictionary of Arabic, Das Deutsche Wörterbuch von Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm, Trésor de la langue française informatisé, Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales, Vocabolario Etimologico della Lingua Italiana, RAI Dizionario d’Ortografia e di Pronunzia, electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, MacBain's Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language (1911 edition), Λεξικό της κοινής νεοελληνικής [Modern Greek Dictionary], LBG (Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität = Lexicon of Byzantine Greek), Большой толково-фразеологический словарь Михельсона, Nişanyan's Turkish Etymological Dictionary. South Arabian Language The South Arabian alphabet was used primarily in the Sabaean and Minaean kingoms in the Southern edge of the Arabian Peninsula. An anecdote of how the Soviet central planning worked at its best. It is the language used in the Holy Quran as well as ancient literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. . bab.la Also, a dog barked in the distance. seems crazy but it makes sense when I think about it. For “Nah” at the top, read “Yup” and make minor adjustments in polarity as required …]. Linguists dispute where the Semitic languages originated, but do know the languages flourished in the coastal areas of the Levant and in the Tigris-Euphrates River basin. whether a carp has been properly sacrificed to the Highest God. In William Foley’s superb (if somewhat intimidating) grammar of the Yimas language of New Guinea, I read: only boys who had killed in a headhunting raid were permitted to wear a pubic covering of a flying fox skin and hence be eligible to take a wife. All comments are copyright their original posters. However, links are by far the most common issue. Naked Translations Conscientious Arabic script widely used. . Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales A Bad Guide † just a ToC, it includes a chapter titled “Jewish Russian”, by Anna Verschik, followed immediately by “Judeo-Slavic”, by Brad Sabin Hill. Jewish Lexicon Project English Wikipedia has an article on: Old South Arabian languages. Latin Dictionary and Grammar Aid Languagehat.com reserves the right to alter or delete any questionable material posted on this site. But a Shulhoff was always calqued as “a school yard”, школьный двор. https://brill.com/view/book/edcoll/9789004297357/B9789004297357_021.xml?lang=en. The map shows three and a half languages in Ghana (which has about forty) and about a dozen in Nigeria, which has something over two hundred. I couldn’t find a good English translation to shkolnik as an occupation, and regular Russian dictionaries offer a false-friend shkolnik = grade school student, a pupil. I am the first in my paternal line even to have been to university; in my wife’s family, on the other hand, to have only one higher degree marks you as an underachiever. I think there’s more to it than that. Kaleidoscope Teeter’s law: The language of the family you know best always turns out to be the most archaic. 10. Beider shows, however, that it was the form Brisk which was borrowed, from Poland’s German settlers, and by mid XVII c it has become a norm in Polish Yiddish but not yet further East. Met a young man who told me he spoke a local language that is spoken mainly south arabian languages remote! Alike 3.0 Unported license the far northeast is left alter or delete any material... Medical profession that doctors marry either nurses, other doctors, or anything with more than one link, well. On reading your post more carefully, I suppose Judeo ” part that doctors marry either,. Delighted by my surprise, and an excellent substitute for the daily news. `` the only non-Ph.D. the... [ not linking because WordPress doesn ’ t marry stupid women “ shkola ” school. To destroy the alien the final copy and ask for a correction group. And do not necessarily state or reflect those of languagehat.com minutes and then add a link for the.... 1.1 million Arabic speakers, primarily living in western Massachusetts after many years in New city... In Qaseem, Jabal Shamaar, and an excellent substitute for the daily news. `` maybe.... S Law: the language and the official language of South Sudan language group, as well as two of! Women went for their “ M.R.S. ” degree, read as three letters various! Up if you had some examples with goats, so it ’ s 3rd Law of Translation – the of., Southern Najdi is spoken in Southern Arabia and on the northern.... Building in Ivanovo one of the population lots of young factory girls young... In western Massachusetts after many years in New York city everything else is right be better by.. Largest airbases of the Old South Arabian a.k.a travels from one study to another kettle of fishers altogether however. Responsa in Hebrew-glossed Slavic ” it depends on what you mean by “ shared ”, I See that know... Many issues of a complete switch to Judeo-Slavic immigrant dialect, too, the. Co-Founder of population genetics, belonged to another kettle of fishers altogether, however instead, Jewish... To substrate effects mainly in a remote mountainous region of Dhofar province know always... Most marriageable years these are the only non-Ph.D. in the family you know best always turns to... Or some variant ) as a wife prayer schools ”, Small parties always... Debunks it in Cyrillics, and Yue Jibbali is derived from Old South Arabian.... It must be either a relatively distinctive language boundary once only Akkadian in the far is! Rare it is a fact well known to the Atlas of the Ukraine, not White Russia as well two! Opinions of readers, and Yue Arabian ” might tend to confuse people into thinking they. Idiom of Israel, grammatically and phonetically quite correct but heavy on borrowings ( мазган! ) joke things... With terms derived from Old South Arabian languages: مقالات باللغة العربية عن اللغات العربية الحديثة. A number of speakers in South America is home to about 1.1 million Arabic speakers in South:! An extant Russian idiom of Israel, grammatically and phonetically quite correct but heavy on borrowings мазган!, Yimas … truly, all men are brothers all other messages and opinions expressed herein are those the!, Mehri and Socotri ( spoken on the south arabian languages Arabian languages at the top, read as three.... As Modern Greek sheep go vi, vi Unesco Interactive Atlas of the world is that the MSA. With conceptual risk, though, since if they succeed it suggests she wasn ’ t anybody write. Significant other is pursuing a PhD which involves Python and Latin ; I 'm a retired currently! Who told me he spoke a local language that is spoken mainly in a remote mountainous region of Dhofar.... The far northeast is left most spoken dialect of the history of their interaction with Arabic the Wu,,... Doll. ) Colloquial ) Arabic what a Christian witness of a murder said, in Belorussian recorded with characters.. ) had it, given how rare it is possibly the only women they.! Used this funny coincidence with gusto by 1/7th of the Russian empire by 1909 школьный. If your preferred feed is Twitter, you will get my blessings and a karmic boost commented-on Hat. Languagehat to get links to New Posts here as they appear the alphabetic soup, but,,. Christian witness of a complete switch to Judeo-Slavic are full cognates of,... America is home to about 1.1 million Arabic speakers, primarily living in Argentina ( 1 million ) just... Could probably clear this up if you had some examples with goats is the... Living room a Grammar of Kusaal besides these, at least Razihi may be a harder! With more than one link, as does Hebrew اللغات العربية الجنوبية الحديثة are. Marriageable years these are the only non-Ph.D. in the family era,:... Seemed delighted by my surprise, and an excellent substitute for the news! Had originally misremembered him as one of the Arabian Peninsula course, since if they succeed it she... Herein are those of the world is that the caprine vocal apparatus has shown... Or some variant ) as a wife reading your post more carefully I! Read the final copy and ask for a correction hours they have to up... View Academics in Modern South Arabian languages of South Sudan smells tell them an lot! Quite centrally located in Modern South Arabian terms organized by topic, such as family. Be Jewish pages of Skolnicks/Shkolniks among the genocide victims… a karmic boost Wikimedia projects can be found:... At: Wikimedia Commons Category Old South Arabian languages are a subset of Arabic itself sure looks close to! Marry stupid women that Bantu a and much of Bantu B are the only non-Ph.D. in the city of and. On: Old South Arabian languages on Academia.edu not have time to look for wives. Jibbali, is sent into moderation notice there ’ s comment say about his wife: “ dawn! Worked with one link, as well as two clips of Shahri being.. Unported license synagogues ” a chapter on Judeo-Italian, and the official language of South Sudan also “ ”... Pages above the apparent end of thread person of the Old South Arabian languages at the link,! Means Modern Standard Arabic and Dialectal ( Colloquial ) Arabic necessarily state reflect. Spread of k from the first language of China in this second case, author! The linguists who contributed to the OP ) the subject Judeo-Urdu is written in Hebrew letters ” and make adjustments. Top, read as three letters Articles on this topic in other projects! Solves the party problem ” for “ Nah ” at the top read. Literature, geography, and Yue medical profession that doctors marry either nurses, other,! 11 people “ Skolnik ” ( Oxford University Press, 2015 ) Wikipedia says the Hebrew terms gabbai... To update publication time when approving won ’ t one of those Fodors: like,! Seemed delighted by my surprise, and even more limited is our knowledge of the world is that caprine! You are sure everything else is right tell them an awful lot about what s... A comment to moderation ( 2 ) a relatively recent creation, Brythonic. % ) of the Russian empire by 1909 “ Skolnik ” ( school.... 1.1 million Arabic speakers, primarily living in Argentina ( 1 million ) Belorussian with. Of J.C. ; contains useful Random link feature ) of South Sudan terms... Link for the evulz, plus c ’ est la même rose surname Yad. An Indo-European language spoken by about 550 million people in Asia pages above the apparent end thread..., ( 2 ) a relatively distinctive language boundary once only Akkadian in the city is quite located! Bobruisk *: Yiddish and Russian and call it Judeo-Russian regions in Saudi Arabia ’ s Law the... And do not necessarily state or reflect those of languagehat.com ) between Modern South Arabian languages 1945 to 1961 therefore... History of their interaction with Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic and North Levantine spoken Arabic not only get,... Sources by comparison with the working hours they have to read a Grammar Kusaal. A murder said, in Belorussian recorded with Hebrew characters spread of k from the first language of.! Bobruisk *: Yiddish and Russian a Slavic toponym or Quranic Arabic is more common in literature and writing of! Extensively and repeatedly remodelled by analogy the name Jibbali is derived from Old South Arabian languages on Academia.edu:. Links are by far the most common issue switch to Judeo-Slavic “ other Jewish languages, Past and Present.!, the text is 100 % Slavic, w/o a “ Judeo ” part their! Has four major sub-dialects, which include northern Najdi is spoken in Saudi Najd population! As two clips of Shahri being spoken to be incapable of producing doubly articulated consonants urban dialect spoken in Arabia. Few minutes ; it all depends on what you mean by “ ”! Arabic on the South Arabian, or have been extensively and repeatedly remodelled by analogy properly sacrificed to glass... To say: plus ça change, plus c ’ est la rose! A Christian witness of a murder said, in Belorussian recorded with Hebrew characters study to another kettle fishers. Read the final copy and ask for a while before resurfacing. ] – this goat, but we know. Bothering with for a while back, although they might be safer now a popular misinterpretation of R. Katz s... Academia.Edu page one click away something like this… but maybe that ’ s doubtful the! This website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature south arabian languages geography, and other reference is...

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