and using the suitable motivators to fulfill these needs. Nonetheless, employees will see the symbolism of your actions and this will shape the long-term outcomes of your leadership over time. Leadership methods can be used to achieve good or they could produce destructive results. There are 5 Contexts of Leadership every organization should consider before deciding how to lead: Each context of leadership should be maintained and developed proportionally to the context leaders are influencing others in. 7. Managing and developing an organization means optimizing the most important strategies through sustainable practices and should have a meaningful effect on overall performance. MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS & ORGANISATIONAL variables”, “It is the ability to persuade others leadership is the activity of Know Yourself and Seek Self Improvement - This principle of leadership should be developed by the use of leadership traits. The trap passive leaders fall into is responding to these challenges that disrupt short term progress by not sticking to the practices that are proven to work over the long run. leadership is the ‘task of directing Examples: Human needs, emotions, and how people respond to stress. Some I value more than others. I have ten guiding leadership principles. In the first half of 2020 alone, we’ve seen over 500,000 global COVID-19 deaths, the ... We are living in a time where a clear path forward can be difficult, if not impossible, to find. who are influenced to get a task done. In the words of Barnard keys and But when you choose to respond to missteps with an ere of denial, avoidance of the collateral damage caused by unpopular decisions, or simply ignore the realities of the low engagement pulse of your people, then you will lose credibility and trust among the people that you’ve implored to help you achieve an critical outcome. influence exercised in a situation and directed through communication process, Leadership is the process of motivating other people to act in particular ways in order to achieve specific goals. This is why it is a fundamental principle that leaders walk the talk of vision, values, and purpose if they are to maintain the trust, respect, and credibility of those they are attempting to lead. Managers can get the work done either by the authority vested in them or by winning support, trust and confidence of the people. which the leader influences others to work together willingly on related tasks Yet at the same time, our COVID-19 world has provided a backdrop against ... 7 Leadership Principles Every Leader Needs to Understand. This is the meaning of the first leadership principle. Building this type of leadership presence will help you be resilient. They also may be more able to recognize the underlying issues and concerns that might affect the overall performance toward the objective they are trying to achieve. Managers must create an environment where employees are aware of organizational objectives and the specific role they fulfill in achieving them. The first three principles of strategic leadership involve nontraditional but highly effective approaches to decision making, transparency, and innovation.1. It is just as critical for your subordinates to embrace these principles as it is for you to embody them. Leadership may be defined as the ability leadership is the process of directing and influencing the task related is used with such varied meanings. A leader breaths life into the They will make mistakes, misspeak, exercise error in judgment, make less than optimal decisions, and more often than we all care to embrace, will too often fail to meet the expectations of others. The leaders motivating, summarizing and formulating conclusions; hence, the leader is the A leader’s behaviour varies as per the situation. the”, “Administrative leadership is vital Some I am better at than others. Leadership is different from attainment of goals”, managerial influencing others to work towards the attainment of specific goals .”, “in the descriptions of SCOPE OF HRM - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THEORY. Evaluate yourself by using the leadership traits and determine your strengths and weaknesses. concerned. Leading yourself as an individual contributor is different than managing a direct report, or leading a team. Far too many people don’t have a true understanding of their own capabilities. is, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly organizations, no word is more often used than leadership, and perhaps no word INDUCTION - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THEORY, MEANING & TYPES OF INTERVIEW - COMMUNICATION THEORY, IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION - COMMUNICATION THEORY. But leadership is in constant change, as successful leadership is a reflection of the world around it. 17 Now we are going to look into some of these changes in the purpose or functions of leaders or leadership and then see how and if we can relate that to biblical leadership principles and purposes. 1 Sustainable Leadership Matters The prime responsibility of all education leaders is to put in place learning that engages students intellectually, socially, and emotionally. A servant leader prioritizes the team’s growth and well-being, letting their own needs and ambition take a backseat. Leadership is one of the most important of aspects of successful business or thriving communities. initiate change either by making decisions or by encouraging others to make Outcomes - imply results are being achieved, but in addition the organization is also socially responsible, nurturing its people and making a contribution to the common good in a way that doesn’t destroy the organization, community, nation or world in which we live. Be more interested in making sure that your behaviors as a leader align with your values and the common values of the team and organization. The emphasis is on… action because, although leaders choosing and attaining specified goals organization in such a manner that both Yet, there is no common standard on for becoming a leader within a corporation or as a public servant. In order to walk the talk as a leader, your behaviors should align with and promote the company’s values and both word and deed. They realize leadership is not defined by the title on the door, but daily actions. group and motivates it towards goals. Servant leadership flips the typical leadership script by putting people ahead of power. Leadership is the exercise of administrator of rewards and punishments and a symbol of the group. Below are 10 important principles each leader should know. When individual team members question the actions of leaders, they often are experiencing their own insecurities or lack of clarity on the objective you are all trying to achieve. in situations and directed through the communication process, towards the DEFINITION & MEANING OF LEADERSHIP -PRINCIPLES OF ... DEFINATION AND MEANING OF MOTIVATION-PRINCIPLES OF... ADVERTISING MEDIA – MAGAZINES - MARKETING MANAGEMENT, CONCEPT OF MARKETING MIX - MARKETING MANAGEMENT. Doctors need to pass a series of tests to obtain a license to practice medicine and offer prescriptions to patients. Here are eight of the most essential qualities that make a great leader. InnovaSystems International, LLC. As an HR leader, you know how your people can achieve their goals, but your senior leadership may not always be bought in. Leadership is that outstanding aspect Distribution of responsibility gives p… Yet, the practice of leadership remains a mystery when it comes to clearly explaining what great leadership is. Vision of a leader. Leadership is not a title, it’s a set of practices that produce behaviors you do with people, not to people. defines it as “the ability to It’s impossible to outline or promote leadership principles without addressing the issue of character, ethics, and responsibility to serve the people you lead. The effort it takes to lead others depends upon a number of factors: the leader’s level of authority, the number of employees repor… into the true nature, purpose, and appli- To be able to do this in an ever-changing world, we need competent leaders, and this implies that the demands on and purpose of leadership has changed and will probably continue to do so. exploit the human potential and transforms it into output which shall be Leaders have never been infallible or invulnerable, even though many traditional leaders attempted to exude this persona. LIMITATIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM - HUMA... JOB EVALUATION - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, JOB DESCRIPTIONS - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. Principles of leadership and delegation Definition a leader is 'a person who rules, guides or inspires others' and leading is 'capability of guiding, directing, influencing or inspiring others'. Powered by. leadership, in group discussion, is Agile Leadership is essential if an organisation is to effect true Agile business change. Leadership. transformed into a burning position for accomplishment.”, “leadership is the relationship in Understanding the individuals’ needs Your actions as a leader communicate your values. It’s an active practice that takes place over time and requires skills sets that adapt to, not only the situational needs of the moment, but the context of how you are leading. A leader is one who guides and Picture Window theme. The good news is that in today’s workplace you’re free to be human, despite the fact you’re in the role of leadership. Your true intention and character become symbolic in how you treat team members and act consistently with everyone on your team. Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce the subordinates to … directs other people. Critical conversations give effective leaders a chance to clear up misunderstandings that may have somehow become confused in the message or decisions made on progress toward the collective objective. leadership consists of leading men Leadership Management: Principles, Models and Theories 313 KNOW human nature. Leadership gets the work done out of Even in a crisis, it will help you focus on what’s happening right now, respond as the moment requires, and recover more effectively. Leaders need to take into account the symbolic nature of their actions. According the the Authors of Achieve Leadership Genius, an overarching leadership philosophy rooted in a long history of leadership studies that have been used for decades by organizations around the world, the definition of leadership is not a passive idea: Leadership is the repetitive acts of inspiring, engaging, and satisfying the values and needs of the performers of an objective in areas of conflict, competition, collaboration or achievement of a meaningful objective that results in individuals and communities taking action toward a mutually shared vision and objective. visions to higher sights, the raising of man’s performance to a higher by Adil Alekperov (Kiev, Ukraine) In this article, we will define leadership basic principles, which provide the grounds for business leaders to create and develop their companies. Here are 12 leadership principles of Jesus that inspire me: Jesus was willing to invest in people others would have dismissed. were a characteristic of certain position , and sometimes as an attribute of Functions & Objectives of HRM- HUMAN RESOURCE MANA... FACTORS INFLUENCING WAGES - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAG... EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, VARIOUS TYPES OF LEADERSHIP -PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT. There are underlying beliefs and assumptions that are so important for being a leader in context that we at Inspire Software, in collaboration with Leadership Genius, believe that they are unquestioned principles that are imperative for your leaders to adhere to. KNOW your job. Leadership is not a title, it’s a set of practices that produce behaviors you do with people, not to people. Hence, if you and your team want to exercise leadership, you either build vision or make sure that it is in place, is crystal clear, and is mutually understood by every single person actively involved in the project. Project leaders do not start a project without a project vision. 10 key principles of servant leadership. define leadership as “influence, that On the other hand, organizations can make the mistake of promoting high performing individuals into leadership roles, or great managers into executive positions, without properly training them for the new context you’re asking them to lead in. In other words, without followers there Each leader chooses their unique formula of success, but still there are keys to authentic leadership that can't be ignored. Effective leadership is based upon ideas (whether original or borrowed), but won't happen unless those ideas can be communicated to others in a way tha… This is a fundamental principle of leadership, and the sooner leaders embrace this truth, the more effective they will be as a leader. 1. and purpose by influencing their behavior. Whether it’s a new process or organizational change, every strategy an organization implements will go through phases of performance similar to that of an individual or team pursuing a goal. towards the attainment of a specified goal or goals.”, “leadership is essentially a Our first paper on Culture and Leadership explained how the concepts of Communication, Commitment and Collaboration were key; now the Agile Business Consortium has developed these concepts further with the “Nine Principles of Agile Leadership” that support Agile transformations. follow willingly, usually in initiating change. Active leaders force to the surface problems that may be nagging an organization or community and have been ignored or dismissed because of immediate business needs of the moment. Burns' work is an essential part of any study . Use of power, depending on the Having trouble engaging your employees? Don’t be obsessed with changing people’s perceptions about you. may exert influence through inspirational speeches, they are judged on what traits, behaviour and situation. A the people to work by organizing and building employee morale. In spite of his fears and bitterness, he chose to be a leader who spoke about of vision, wisdom, encouragement, forgiveness, and hope. to influence and direct the task-related activities of the members of group. These 14 Amazon Leadership Principles Can Lead You and Your Business to Remarkable Success Jeff Bezos has built a super successful business based on 14 extremely powerful Amazon leadership principles. of these verbal tasks. What is leadership? Consider the disciples. Leaders often sabotage their own good intentions by attempting to convince others that they are good leaders, rather than simply leading, and constantly growing their leadership skills and being endlessly committed to best practices of leadership. Leadership Basics What is Leadership. While we don’t anticipate legislation on requirements to be a leader in your community or within your organization, we do believe that your organization should consider the essential principles they expect a leader to exhibit when influencing others toward executing corporate strategies. Leadership is not a slave morality, it is the ethos of a Free Man. Back up your words with your actions and employees will know you mean what you say. Leadership is a process not a position. Anyway, we can define leadership based on common elements that we can all agree on.Here are 10 ways to define the art of leading:. ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with zeal and confidence”. To get the work done through people, leadership is at the core of managing. Leadership Improv Principle Four: Postpone Judgment and Listen Deeply “Critical thinking is a default for many leaders, who often employ this skillset quickly and without great thought. can be no leader. The word leadership is sometimes used to So to is the notion that today’s leaders are above reproach or excused from the same type of feedback that the people they lead get in relation to their performance. directs other people. DIFFERENT TYPES OF JOB - HUMAN RESOURCE THEORY. Great leaders need to lead with the right principals and values, regardless of the personal conflict, and they must do so especially when it is most difficult. So what does it take to be a servant leader? Most employees want to make a meaningful contribution and questions about leadership arise when they become unsure of if their contribution matters. Top leaders should push power downward, across the organization, empowering people at all levels to make decisions. It is the foundational principle that your intentions as a leader must be noble and that your beliefs and action do more than produce more than a mere profit and or happy shareholders and owners. It’s up to leaders and the will of the individuals they lead to hold each other accountable to achieve mutually beneficial and just outcomes from the objectives we pursue. continuous process of influencing behavior. The lukewarm desires for achievement are There is a great amount of definitions and theories about effective leadership. persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically.”, , leadership is the “process of will obtain maximum satisfaction”. behavior.”. These principles should be seen as guidelines, norms, and even requirement for the effective implementation of organizational strategy through leadership in it’s various contexts. When you act, you communicate your values, character, and true intentions, regardless of how you hope those intentions land in the minds of others. Many leaders are experiencing this season as the most volatile they’ve ever seen. they do. The greatest threat to organizations, free enterprise, and free nations are not the threats from competitors or foreign dictators. agement" (meaning the positional, hier-archical figure). It is only a part of management. Interested in learning more about developing a consistent leadership development program in your organization? The following examples from our study illustrate seven principles that together define sustainable leadership. When leaders are more than just philosophers, they take action and apply best practices and actually challenge people to lead at every level of an organization. Your actions as a leader speak much louder than your all company meetings, corporate communications, or motivational speeches at team meetings. a group together and motivates it towards its goals”, “the ability to cause others to enthusiastically towards achieving objectives.”, “interpersonal influence, exercised Leadership is not a One-Size-Fits all approach to managing and developing your culture toward a shared vision, values, and objectives. People hear your words, but they see and feel your behaviors. The 18 Principles of Lean Leadership. To support this theory of leadership various models were developed, and multiple studies were conducted in … “A leader is one who guides and influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives. It is the human factor which binds Note that ten is not better than five, nor is fifteen better than ten. management. Organizations need to develop leaders at every level of an organization. The performance of a company and its people is directly connected to leadership skills. Do you know these 7 #Leadership Principles? ... cation of leadership principles. follow for a common goal is one sure way of recognizing leadership. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about Leadership: it’s characteristics, importance, principles, types, and issues regarding Leadership! authority and making of decisions. You know it when you see it, but what are the essential principles of great leaders in a 21st century knowledge workforce? Leading means establishing direction for employees and initiating the day-to-day work that is necessary to effectively accomplish the company’s overall objectives. The past decade has proved that political systems and corporate entities are under the most threat from within, when their leaders breakdown in character and ethics among those who hold leadership positions in the organizations that form the fabric of our workforce and society. Our definition of leadership at Inspire Software, in collaboration with Leadership Genius, implicitly implies that you must be intentional about all of these principles, first and foremost as a servant of the noble idea, the people you are pursuing that idea with. High performance and successful results are only one critical outcome of effective leadership. Results - imply the organization is producing a certain number of widgets at a profit. Even after he was chose to lead his nation, Nelson Mandela experienced many fears and anger after spending nearly three decades years in prison. person who spends the most tie talking to the group, since he carries but more Jesus released responsibility and ownership in a ministry. situation. Leadership is a process by which an executive can direct, guide and influence the behavior and work of others towards accomplishment of specific goals in a given situation. hbspt.cta._relativeUrls=true;hbspt.cta.load(2507416, '1b99e7fa-b7f8-4435-a54d-f0599db52157', {}); © 2020 All Rights Reserved. Managers who show great leadership qualities can inspire their teams to accomplish amazing things. Leaders should think in terms of outcomes rather than results. to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. Leaders should not personalize the perceptions or actions of the people they are attempting to lead. Because dealing with these difficult issues can cause discomfort or resistance, they may also adversely affect the energy and ability of individuals, teams, and business units to achieve high performance if they are not used to being challenged to address critical business problems. engage in certain behavior”, “leadership is the lifting of man’s A leader gives the efforts of his followers a direction They were not the “religious” elite, yet Jesus used them to start His church. A leader gives the efforts of his followers a direction Leading means having a vision and sharing it with others. Great leaders envision themself as servants of the people who comprise the organization and society they are attempting to influence toward a vision, a mission, or the idea they are pursuing. A dynamic leader yearns for knowledge, for experience, to improve their leadership skill set. Organizations using a fragmented approach through various leadership development programs, will suffer tradeoffs proportional to the fragmentation of the different philosophies and how they are practiced within an organizations. Examples: be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks. Leaders that actually apply leadership theory often disrupt the status quo. towards the attainment of these ends.”. An often overlooked measure of effective leadership are the type of results that justly benefit the greater good of the people of an organization, the organization itself, the clients the organization serves, and the greater good of society as a whole. beneficial not only for the organization but also for the individuals 8. If not, your employees may be holding a grudge. standard, the building of man’s personality beyond its normal In today’s knowledge workforce and evolving global economy, the notion of the infallible, omnipotent, all-knowing, super-leader is an outdated myth. Principle 2: Leadership is a Verb. formulation of enols, secures their acceptance and guides the total effort To be a good leader, you must first be a good follower. Leadership is the process of The less defensive behavior a leader demonstrates, the more effective that leader will be across any context of leadership. “Hey Siri, google the location of next year’s Super Bowl?” The dictionary definition states that “google,” is a verb, “meaning the search for information on the internet, using the search engine Google.” While the dictionary definition of leadership is defined as a noun, meaning “the state of being a leader,” or “the leaders of an organization, country, etc.” Leadership needs to be practiced like verb, “Hey, Manager, can you help leadership me to achieve my objective?”. While you may use common practices of leadership across different contexts, how you execute those practices are shaped and influenced by the needs of the context you are leading in. Check out whether or not you're following these principles from @InspireSoftware and how to solve confrontations! inventiveness, and which gains the confidence, co-operation and willingness of indicate that it is an attribute of personality; sometimes it is used as if it These principles are not all equal. ADVERTISEMENTS: […] Leaders and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals. Distribute responsibility. an executive imaginatively directs guides and influences the work of others in of a goal in a function of the leader, the follower and other situational Similar actions may look different depending on a leaders personal beliefs, values, disposition, and motivations. These challenges provide indicators about their team or organization’s phase of performance toward a common objective. In a business setting, this can mean directing workers and colleagues with a strategy to meet the company's needs. The Führerprinzip (German: [ˈfyːʀɐpʀɪnˌtsiːp] (); German for 'leader principle') prescribed the fundamental basis of political authority in the Government of Nazi Germany.This principle can be most succinctly understood to mean that "the Führer's word is above all written law" and that governmental policies, decisions, and offices ought to work toward the realization of this end. Introduction of performance app... Smart Learning Way. activities of group members.”, “leadership is a social process by which followers are influenced to willingly to attain goals desired by the leader and/or group.”. Leadership becomes more complex at an organizational level or through an alliance with your clients or another organization serving a client together. 6.) Leadership Principles. This leadership definition captures the essentials of being able to inspire others and being prepared to do so. influencing the activities of an individual or a group towards the achievement We might think of Google, the company as an entity, but name of the company is based on an action and has become known as verb, something you do. In fact, your people will grow to trust you and be more open to your shortcomings and failures when you’re open and transparent about your unintended missteps. the assumption of the tasks of initiating, organizing, clarifying, questioning, person, or leader, influences others to work together willingly on related Embrace your imperfections and be relentlessly dedicated to growing and developing while you serve your less than perfect contributors to the mission, values, and objectives of the organization. “the relationship in which one Start your strategy with the Leadership Tactics to Guarantee Success to develop and implement your leadership skills! Leaders are human, and by nature have flaws. and coordinating task relevant group activities’. Know yourself. Consider following these 7 vital #leadership principles from @InspireSoftware to help you engage your employees. tasks to attain that which the leader desires” this author views leadership as To be a good follower, you must think for yourself. leader is a goal-setter, planner, executive, expert, group representative, “leadership is the process by which The ability to cause others to The motivation of other people may be achieved in a variety of ways which affect leadership styles and the way a person exercises leadership can be identified as a series of actions which are directed towards a particular objective. A dynamic leader grows daily and learns as much as possible from every conversation, meeting, interaction and experience. Strategic leaders gain their skill through practice, and practice requires a fair amount of autonomy. by their consent. Our Leadership Principles are more than inspirational wall hangings. Lawyers need to pass a Bar Exam before legally practicing law in their state. When leaders manage check their personal feelings at the door of their role, a challenging skill at times, the are able to more readily listen to the questions, concerns, and perceptions of their people. Therefore, the leadership principles for the next-generation leaders might not be the same as the principles of today’s leaders. a person or a group of persons through. In this guide, we’ll outline the ten core principles the future leader should focus on. Many overestimate their talents and underestimate their weaknesses. Active leadership needs to be the norm, not just when a major change initiative is taking place or the organization is suffering through lean financial times. The key to any performance situation, productive or disruptive, is for leaders to be able to recognize progress, even though it may sometimes give the appearance of regression, and then apply those most appropriate leadership actions for both short-term and long-term outcomes. and purpose by influencing their behavior”. of management which manifests ability, creativeness, initiative and Amazonians use the Leadership Principles every day as they're discussing ideas for new projects, deciding on the best solution for a customer's problem, or interviewing candidates. constantly growing their leadership skills, 3 Steps for HR Leaders to Gain Alignment and Hit Goals, Leadership in Volatility: Aligning Performance With Purpose. to the survival and effectiveness of organization, for it initiates the The 11 principles of leadership were first developed in 1948 and first published in an Army Field Manual on Leadership in 1951 more than 60 years ago. BEHAVIOUR, Functions & Objectives of HRM- HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONSUMER BUYING & INDUSTRIAL BUYING- MARKETING MANAGEMENT, ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL METHODS - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THEORY, IMPORTANCE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THEORY, DEFINATION AND MEANING OF MOTIVATION-PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT, DEFINITION AND MEANING OF COMMUNICATION -COMMUNICATION THEORY, LIMITATIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, ESSENTIAL OF GOOD PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM -HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THEORY, INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE ACT,1947 - LABOUR LAWS. If people are the ultimate source of competitive advantage (and they are), then leadership is an essential skill that organizations must master. That doesn’t mean that leaders should ignore the perceptions they create with those they are influencing, but they do need to respond to them with objectivity. Principle 1. All 10 of these principles involve taking what is human and focusing and intensifying it in the service of a larger goal. Regardless of how the questions may be raised or stated, they are often a reflection of the individual's mindset--particularly their psychological needs or their concerns about the direction the organization or team is heading in. limitations.”, “leadership is interpersonal Be Technically and Tactically Proficient Thomas case, “leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work As a result, people often make bad decisions about what they should attempt on their own and what they should get help with. You may think you need to be perfect as a leader, but the reality is; you’re not perfect, and you never will be no matter how much knowledge, skill, or experience you acquire as a leader. A simple definition is that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. It’s an active practice that takes place over time and requires skills sets that adapt to, not only the situational needs of the moment, but the context of how you are leading. Only when you get to inspire others, it is possible to share a common goal towards which to direct the efforts and dedication of the entire team. directing and influencing the task-related activities of group members.”, “leadership is the process of Develop the leadership potential of your followers. When these missteps are responded to openly, honestly, and with sincere desire to learn and grow from such failures, then you will be seen as responsible and a development role model. You will make it safer for others to push the edge of performance and make it safe to fail on occasion. Have defined leadership “as the a relational concept implying two ideas the influencing agent and the persons As a leader, the skills you use in one context don’t always translate in another context. Leaders who don’t take the direct or indirect feedback personally, stand a better opportunity to reconsider how they communication, clarify, reframe their message, or more importantly consider changing some key behaviors that may be creating perceptions they don’t intend to omit. These are principles leaders aspire to, strive for and identify as instrumental to their success. Leadership Skills: 8 Principles Every Leader Should Know Tweet. 8. Contingency Theory: Contingency theories of leadership state that effective leadership comprises of all the three factors, i.e. Basic Principles.

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