Of these countries, all are correctly labeled except Mozambique and Great Britain. Diffusion is the spreading of culture from one area to another. But by the late 1400s, the world economy was on its way back. as Large economic systems go through boom and bust phases on a long historical time scale. The Berlin Conference was primarily concerned with __________. Timber and other forest products like turpentine were also important. Chase-Dunn, Christopher, and Thomas D. Hall. The colony is usually the recipient of colonists from the colonizing country, not the other way around. C. Give two examples of how the core-periphery concept can be applied below the national scale. AP Human Geography Help » Political Organization of Space » Evolution … In the 1300s, this world system experienced a decline (Abu-Lughod 1989). China's economy ran on a silver standard, and so economic growth created an enormous hunger for silver. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press. Test. Goldberg, Michelle. the "Pax Britannica" established in Africa (Watts 1986). sufficient detail to permit Varsity Tutors to find and positively identify that content; for example we require But Columbus was convinced that the Earth was smaller than that, and therefore that he could sail all the way to China (Blaut 1989). Today, geographers hold that one critical piece of the puzzle of the rise of the West is colonialism. Large areas of the world have been integrated into single economic systems for a long period of time. In China, the colonizing impact was less direct, as no European power ever directly ruled China. New York: Guilford Press. The Colonizer's Model of the World: Geographical Diffusionism and Eurocentric History. Here, the European rulers relied heavily on slaves brought from Africa. 2008. To gain control over the world economy, Europe had to take out its competition. They told themselves it was their task to bring civilization to the backwards peoples of the world -- a task labeled "the white man's burden" by British author Rudyard Kipling. This re-cutting of the colonized territory stuck groups long at odds with each other together into the same political unit. But eventually, the system becomes too rigid and overexploits its resources, and there is a downswing (Chew 2001). Widely believed to be the “cradle of humankind,” Africa is the only continent with fossil evidence of human beings (Homo sapiens) and their ancestors through each key stage of their evolution. This was done uncooperatively though the so-called “Scramble for Africa” and cooperatively with the Berlin Conference in 1884-1885. European trade with Asia was further hampered by a lack of easy trade routes to the East. Slavery had existed for a long time in both Europe and Africa. Australia and Oceania’s physical geography, environment and resources, and human geography can be considered separately. With the help of the community we can continue to Vocabulary from the Advanced Placement course of Human Geography regarding political geography . 2010. The pattern would be repeated throughout the Americas. Europeans did not colonize the interior of Africa during this period (though they would do so later, after the end of the trans-Atlantic slave trade). The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. The Americas, on the other hand, produced only three domesticated animals -- turkeys, llamas and alpacas, and guinea pigs (Native Americans also had dogs, which were brought from Asia). But even where land was left in native hands, colonial rulers found ways to change their economic calculus. A boundary that was drawn across an area prior to the area becoming substantially … This was in part triggered by the Black Plague. The Atlantic Triangular Trade of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries featured the transportation of trinkets from Europe to Africa, slaves from Africa to the Caribbean, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and rum from New England to Europe. But why those countries instead of others? CREATE AN ACCOUNT Create Tests & Flashcards. India's major commodity export for a long time had been textiles, produced in rural shops all through the region. First was the scale. Blaut, J. M. 1989. Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350. During the growth phase, economic activity picks up, populations rise, and the volume of trade between regions increases. In Environmental Justice: Discourses in International Political Economy, eds. Crosby, Alfred W. 1986. The work of capturing slaves and bringing them to the European trading ports was done by other Africans. London: Longman. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (58) Antecedent Boundary. Frank, Andre Gunder, and Barry Gills, eds. Advanced Placement Human Geography (also known as AP Human Geo, AP Geography, APHG, AP HuGe, AP HuG, AP Human, or HGAP) is an Advanced Placement social studies course that studies human geography.The test is administered by College Board.. Society and Natural Resources 21 (7): 569-582. Long-distance trade fell off as people focused on maintaining their own local livelihoods. Created by. Kenya: Post-election violence not spontaneous. The slave trade and the origins of mistrust in Africa. Pre-colonial economies in many areas were oriented toward production for local subsistence. Thus, millennia of living with various diseases had turned them into childhood nuisances but not terrible plagues for Europeans. University of Washington-Seattle Campus... University of South Florida-Main Campus, Current Undergrad, International Studies. This video goes over everything you need to know about the different types of diffusion. Kobayashi, Audrey. 6. In many cases, that was British consumers rather than Indian ones. A. In the United States, for example, government- and church-run boarding schools for Native American children prohibited them from speaking their native language, practicing their native religion, or learning traditional native ways of making a living (e.g. Only a few of today's countries were never ruled by a European or neo-European power, and even those came under heavy European influence in their internal affairs and ability to participate in the world market. Europe had a breakthrough in 1492 with the voyage of Christopher Columbus (Blaut 1993). Native Americans, on the other hand, had never had an opportunity to evolve resistance to diseases like smallpox or measles, and so they were killed in huge numbers. Emory University. These continents proved far more lucrative for Europe than any trade route. The first was technological superiority (Diamond 1997). The slave trade exacerbated conflicts among kingdoms and tribes in Africa. 2003. Many of the most-spoken languages around the world are European, with the number of speakers vastly outweighing the population of that language's country of origin. 3. We learned in an earlier chapter that the idea of race, in the sense of biologically distinct sub-species of humans, was created during the colonial era to justify the social organization of the colonies. The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed between the empires of Spain and Portugal in 1494. 2002. Flashcards. Give a real world example for each way. This continuation of unequal economic relationships despite an end to formal political control is called neo-colonialism. Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. It depopulated significant swaths of land, which then reverted to disease-infested swamps. Typically, there is a mass migration of people from the colonizing country into the colony. An economic recession in the mid-1700s created an opportunity for the British East India company to move in and take over, uniting the various empires and principalities into a colony encompassing what are now the nations of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (Frank 1998). There are many types of cultural diffusion, and in this guide we will go over the types and provide examples. 101 S. Hanley Rd, Suite 300 Included a large amount of ethnic and cultural groups Why are Empires not States? … If you've found an issue with this question, please let us know. The Richter Scale of Cultural Development was from the television show Star Trek. Extracting resources from the Americas got Europe into the economic game, making it more competitive and richer, and giving it the ability to become an important middleman in intra-Asian trade as well as trading directly for Asian goods. 4. The end of formal colonialism is usually dated to the mid-1800s for the Western Hemisphere, and the mid-1900s for the Eastern. The trade did not feature the transportation of tobacco from Europe to the Americas. Environment 37 (7): 3-5, 42-43. Territory is not clearly defined – boundaries were not set or recognized. © 2007-2020 All Rights Reserved, The term Neo-colonialism is used to refer to, France is currently by far the biggest trading partner of Algeria, this is most accurately described as, The Treaty of Tordesillas primarily concerns the division of, The Berlin Conference was primarily concerned with, SAT Courses & Classes in San Francisco-Bay Area. KEY QUESTION #2: WHY DO PEOPLE MIGRATE? Smallpox derives from cowpox, measles from rinderpest, and human influenza from related diseases of a variety of livestock. The colonies' external trade was controlled by the ruling power (so they couldn't trade with China themselves), and they were often forbidden from developing their own manufacturing base to compete with the mother country. which specific portion of the question – an image, a link, the text, etc – your complaint refers to; Chew, Sing C. 2001. A statement by you: (a) that you believe in good faith that the use of the content that you claim to infringe Consider the impact of colonialism on the world’s cultural geography. But Britain's emerging industrial economy was also focused (among other things) on textile manufacture. But the presence of massive European demand for slaves greatly shaped Africans' incentives. The University of Texas at Dallas, Bachelor in Arts, International Political Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. NBER Working Paper 14783. Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy. Daily Nation. The distinguishing feature of the neo-Europes is the similarity of their climates to that of Europe. As discussed earlier, the world economy goes through cyclical ups and downs. The Dragon's Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa. (1500's-1700's) European colonialism in Africa (1800's-1900's) Wallerstein's World-systems theory. This means that the profits from selling the mine's products will go to investors in those regions. Heartland and Rimland Theory. Between 1492 and 1900, over 10 million men and women were taken from Africa to the Americas (Voyages 2009). Explain how colonialism a±ected global paTerns of language and religion using speci²c examples to support your argument. In this article, we'll go through the structure of the free-response section, some helpful tips for answering AP Human Geography FRQs, examples of what these free-response questions look like, and a few places where you can find the best practice materials. The Berlin Conference was convened in 1884 with the intention of dividing up the continent of Africa among the various European imperial powers (Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy). Algeria was once a major colony of France and was under French control until the 1960s. And if the white race is not biologically distinct from other races, then we can’t explain the economic growth of Europe on the basis of biological characteristics. This anti-colonial nationalism then became a justification for clinging to harmful traditions (such as female circumcision) as a form of resistance to colonialism (Goldberg 2009). Nunn, N., and L. Wantchekon. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Losing these workers made Africa more dependent on European goods and less able to produce for itself. It was conquered by the Japanese during the war but returned to France following the conclusion of the war. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. DBHS AP Human Geography 2012-13 Monday, November 5, 2012. The construction of geographical knowledge -- racialization, spatialization. In the Americas, lands were cut up into haciendas run by Spanish or Portuguese masters, with poor and native people having little option but to work for the masters (even if they weren’t formally enslaved). Weber’s theory fails to account for the greater economic dynamism of Asia during much of the period after the Protestant reformation or the recent economic success of Catholic (Spain, Ireland) and Confucian (Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore) societies. Over time, these trans-regional economic linkages have spread farther and grown stronger, leading eventually to our modern globe-spanning economy. Mozambique was under the control of Portugal. Daily Nation, April 2. Indochina, often called French Indochina, was a colonial possession of the French Empire until the decolonization period that followed World War II. 1998. Three key factors explain why European diseases were so devastating to Native Americans, whereas with the exception of syphilis, no American diseases ever became a problem for Europeans: domestic animals, population size, and time (Dobson and Carper 1994). discuss environmental determinism in detail later, Kenya: Post-election violence not spontaneous. Initial attempts to use Native American labor were disappointing, as so many of them had died of diseases. Given this history, it is not surprising that the entitlement theory of famine was developed by Amartya Sen, an Indian. improve our educational resources. The volcanoes of Lemnos, an island in the Mediterranean, and Mount Etna, on the island of Sicily, were believed to be the forges of Hephaestus, the Greek god of fire. India and China were the dominant economic powers in this system. So why is English spoken so widely there? More on Machakos. Europe had two key advantages that enabled colonial powers such as Spain, Portugal, Britain, and France to take over large swaths of the Americas. Search » All » Geography » AP Human Geography ... Japan is in example but their are few states like it. While they were set up as colonies, the wholesale transfer of the European way of life to these areas enabled them to become rivals to the European homelands, and even, in the case of the US, capture the status of global economic core. Economic activity in ex-colonies continued to be funded by investors in the former colonizer, and products were bought and sold by companies based in the former colonizer (Davis 2001). New York: W.W. Norton and Co. Faber, Daniel 2002. One important synthesis of the way these spatial arrangements work is World Systems Theory. The Treaty of Tordesillas primarily concerns the division of __________ between two colonial powers. Which of these European imperial powers is not correctly matched with an African territory it received in the Berlin Conference or conquered during the Scramble for Africa? Rights verus rites: when it comes to the lives of women around the globe, do local traditions ever trump human rights? A description of the nature and exact location of the content that you claim to infringe your copyright, in \ Among the diseases causing significant epidemics were "smallpox, chickenpox, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, yellow fever, common cold, pneumonia, scarlet fever, whooping cough, diphtheria, typhus, dysentery, cholera, bubonic plague, malaria, and amoebic dysentery" (Krech 1999). It was not uncommon for tribes to lose 90% or more of their members. OR. 2. Dependency Theory. or more of your copyrights, please notify us by providing a written notice (“Infringement Notice”) containing Infectious diseases and human population history. Ethnic groups that were hardest-hit by the slave trade exhibit lower trust and poorer economic success than their neighbors who were less devastated by slavery (Nunn and Wantchekon 2009). Once the American colonies (Figure 3) were conquered, the new European rulers had to find someone to extract the resources and produce the products that would make the colonies worthwhile. Conquest and colonization of the Americas provided Europe with a huge boost in resources and markets that enabled it to hitch a ride on the Asian train – and eventually take over that train. AP Human Geography: Exam Prep Final Free Practice Test Instructions Choose your answer to the question and click 'Continue' to see how you did. But as we learned in an earlier chapter, race is not a biologically valid concept when applied to people. 2010. Mercantilism was eventually replaced by free-market capitalism as the dominant economic theory in Europe and much of the world. They give an overview of each free-response question and of how students performed on the question, including typical … London: Routledge. Track your scores, create tests, and take your learning to the next level! Rights verus rites: when it comes to the lives of women around the globe, do local traditions ever trump human rights? Looking at Figure 1, we know that certain parts of our world have been at the forefront of economic growth, becoming the core of the capitalist world economy. A related theory was environmental determinism. The effects of four centuries of slave trade on Africa are still apparent, a mere century and a half after its end. AP Human Geography Exam. This is basically how Europe, boosted by the products of its American colonies and skilled in colonial domination by its practice there, brought down China and India. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In order to explain how "the West" became the core of our current world economic system, we have to go back to a time when it wasn't. They came to believe that they were an inferior or backward people and that the only hope lay in assimilating to the colonizer's culture. Structure of contemporary political map. Under British rule, these programs were eliminated. For any given disease, human genetic variation will produce people with a variety of levels of susceptibility to the disease. Geographies of Postcolonialism is a very accessible introduction to colonialism, post-colonialism and postcolonial geographies. The Ecological Indian: Myth and History. Berkeley: University of California Press. France is currently by far the biggest trading partner of Algeria, this is most accurately described as __________. Meanwhile, Papua New Guinea may receive a few low-paying jobs. What Columbus found, of course was that there were two whole continents lying west of Europe and east of China. China soon began to suffer some of the same problems as India, as its economic activity came to serve European wealth and systems to provide for people in the event of a catastrophe like a drought weakened. Joni Adamson, Mei Mei Evans, and Rachel Stein, 229-246. the hunting or native forms of agriculture) (Smith 2007). It effectively divided the continent of South America between a Spanish-controlled empire and a Portuguese-controlled empire. Much of the trade within Asia was carried on by Arab and Chinese ships, and caravans through Central Asia. (Unfortunately for the Wampanoags' strategic calculations, the English soon turned against all of New England's native people). Geographical Review 82 (2): 143-153. ensuring Germany would respect the territorial sovereignty of France and Belgium in western Europe and Africa, dividing the continent of Africa among the various European imperial powers without an outbreak of war between those powers, establishing trading ports in Japan and China for the European imperial powers, preventing German attempts at achieving hegemonic control over the European continent, organizing a combined western European resistance against the Ottoman and Russian Empires. Educated people in Europe had known the world was round since the ancient Greeks proved it around 200 BCE. International Trade Approach & Self Sufficient Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Imperialism. 1994. Other portions of the system, called the periphery, experience a loss of wealth due to their participation in the system. Colonialism refers to the process by which one nation exercises near complete control over another country which they have settled and taken over. This is a sample of Part one of my AP Human Geography: Unit 4 slideshow. Placing race in environmental justice research in Latin America. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. AP Human Geography Unit 3 FRQs 1. For example, English farming systems involving wheat, peas, and cattle could be recreated in the northeastern US with little effort. 4 Diagnostic Tests 225 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept. It is one of the most significant events during the age of imperialism (circa 1870-1914). This form of economic control over a former colony is known as “Neo-colonialism.”. Political Geography. Since Papua New Guinea is so poor, they lack the power to say no to the foreign mining company, or to mine the minerals themselves. A series of unprecedented famines struck India and other colonies in the late 1800s, even as these colonies were exporting food to Britain. So as Europeans pushed into the heart of the Americas, they found tribes already devastated by disease and "wilderness" that had only recently been abandoned. This college-level course introduces students to the systematic study of patterns and processes that have shaped human understanding, use, and … Cultural Geography Historic Cultures The African continent has a unique place in human history. Yet in their second assault, they were successful. The mines of the Americas began pumping silver into the Asian economy, either moving directly across the Pacific in Spanish galleons, or passing to Europe and then on via the Middle East, India, and Southeast Asia (Figure 4). Please be advised that you will be liable for damages (including costs and attorneys’ fees) if you materially As late as 1793, the Chinese Emperor Ch'ien Lung bragged to King George III of England: "I set no value on objects strange and ingenious and have no use for your country's manufactures" (Frank 1998). Finally, the American colonies provided a captive market for European manufactured goods (Blaut 1993). The only way to acquire cash was to grow crops that could be sold to colonial trading monopolies, or to work as a laborer in colonial mines or other jobs. Britain's mills could now buy cotton from its colonies in India and Egypt, as well as slave-grown cotton from the southern US, turn it into cloth, and make a profit selling that cloth around the world, including in the cotton-producing colonies. But the granting of formal independence did not necessarily end the economic and political control that the core held over the periphery. John Byrne, Leigh Glover, and Cecilia Martinez, 39-70. If you believe that content available by means of the Website (as defined in our Terms of Service) infringes one During the last few decades of the nineteenth century, and the early twentieth century, the European imperial powers carved the continent of Africa among themselves. (Clear inference of communication barriers being overcome.) Human Development Index. mining). In particular, Europeans brought with them steel (known since antiquity but greatly improved by Indian smiths), and guns (invented by the Chinese). mgettenberg. Pomeranz, K. 2000. Colonialism is when a more powerful country attempts to assert its power and influence over a weaker country. The World System: Five Hundred or Five Thousand Years? 1553. My Geography teacher is also going to write a blog about what she teaches me (and therefore what I should have learnt!) Cultural Geography Historic Cultures Indigenous cultures shaped, and were shaped by, the geography of Australia and Oceania. Colonized societies were forcibly incorporated into the emerging global capitalist economy, typically on bad terms. 2020 AP Test Changes Due to COVID-19. Soul wound: the legacy of Native American schools. Economic historians calculate that the emergence of Europe as the core of the world economy occurred relatively late in history -- possibly as late as 1850. Explain how indigenous languages have been under threat from primary economic activities in the Americas since the 1970s. AP Human Geography : Colonialism & Imperialism Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography. Barnard College, Current Undergrad, Mathematics-Statistics, Political Science. The world's major mining companies are headquartered in places like North America and Europe. In addition to the violence of the conquest itself, a variety of consequences were felt by colonized societies. Which of the following is not an issue typically associated with colonialism? an Each downswing is an opportunity for the system to be reorganized as different powers seize the advantage. Independent states are the building blocks of the of world political map. Science & Society 53 (3): 260-296. And the hemisphere-wide economic system that had emerged connected Europe into a huge total population of people. the brand of aggressive, militaristic colonialism that emerged in the second-half of the nineteenth century, the spread and globalization of western, particularly American, culture, the continued economic dependence of colonies on their former occupiers, the dependence of many of the world’s poorest countries on the United States of America for food and aid. Describe how historically the political geography of colonialism affected indigenous languages. As a result of the vagaries of biogeography, the Afro-Eurasian landmass contained a number of suitable domesticable species. Those that fell on the Portuguese side of this arbitrary line now live in Brazil and continue to speak Portuguese; those that fell on the Spanish side live in the rest of South America and continue to speak Spanish. Watts, M. 1983. Amnesty Magazine. Most of the devastating epidemic diseases are derived from diseases common to herd animals. Rise and Demise: Comparing World-Systems. This was most famously done at the 1884 Berlin Conference, when the major European powers drew up a map allocating colonial control of Africa, disregarding any native ethnic or political boundaries as well as natural features (Chamberlain 1999). Moreover, the net effect of colonization in some cases was to exacerbate ethnic tensions. Instead, food was distributed by the international market, flowing to whoever could pay the most for it. The correct answer is the opposite of what is typically expected in colonialism. 1. One of the perennial questions in the social sciences is to explain "the rise of the West." The geography and climate of the Mediterranean region, for example, directly influenced Greek mythology. The unreliability of India's climate had led native princes to develop systems to accumulate and store food during good years, and redistribute that food in bad ones. As the silver flowed toward China, a variety of commodities -- textiles, spices, ceramics, and others -- flowed back toward Europe. India fell first. Thus, the diseases that people in Afro-Eurasia got from their livestock could easily find new victims in the local area, and pass on to new areas when the local epidemic's peak passed. The world economy has one market and a global division of labor. Mercantilism is best defined as __________. Europe's first priority in establishing American colonies was to produce things that they could sell to China and India. The term Neo-colonialism is used to refer to __________. 2007. 5. It spread quickly along trade routes throughout the Eastern Hemisphere, devastating populations and thereby disrupting economies. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Gravity. It draws on a comprehensıve range of sources in outlining the linkages between knowledge, power and representation of the colonial image. Voyages 2009. Many countries bear crushing debt burdens which are owed to ex-colonizer countries, forcing them to continue producing for the world market and making them vulnerable to demands from international creditors. The Greeks had calculated a relatively accurate figure -- 39,690 km around, as compared to an actual measurement of 40,008 km. Start studying Ap Human Geography Unit 4. We're familiar with short-term economic ups and downs, which last perhaps a few years at a time. The difference was that while the Spanish were regrouping, a plague (historians think it was likely smallpox) wiped out many of Tenochtitlan's warriors. Match. ChillingEffects.org. Often, the governing country uses the colony for its resources, taking what is useful without regard to the original inhabitants. Rather, the tribe had been devastated by a disease epidemic. Rather, the system is typically organized so that the bulk of the profits accrue to one area of the world, called the core. an economic theory that emphasizes favorable balance of trade and the accumulation of precious metals, a political theory that emphasizes personal liberty and autonomy, but also competition and antagonism, an economic theory that emphasizes freedom from government intervention, a political theory that emphasizes cooperation and communalism and the suppression of individuality. Humans caught these diseases by domesticating animals like cattle, sheep, and chickens. Nevertheless, European powers were able to use their increasing control over world trade to force China into making trade concessions favorable to Europe (Davis 2001). Sovereignty is the authority of a state to govern itself. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research. The term “Neo-colonialism” has emerged in recent years to refer to the continued economic dependence of colonies on their former occupiers. Your teacher may choose to organize the course content differently based on local priorities and preferences. Semiperipheral areas often aspire to become the core, in order to reap the rewards of long-distance trade. Here's another fun fact: the Angles never lived in Hong Kong. (Note that contrary to popular myth, the Chinese did not use gunpowder solely for fireworks -- indeed, one would have to be rather dense to invent something that makes a dramatic explosion, and not figure out that you could use it to kill someone!) The course content outlined below is organized into commonly taught units of study that provide one possible sequence for the course. Home Embed All AP Human Geography Resources . Frank, Andre Gunder. The East India Company ruled the colony as a corporate asset for 100 years, until the British government took over and ran the colony for another 100 years. Colonialism also created ideological subordination. Other writers have tried to find something inherent in European culture to explain the difference. The types include, nations, states, nation-states, multinational states, multistate nations, and autonomous regions. My Geography teacher has started an experiment which involves me writing about what I have learnt in my lessons and about any geographical news that interests me. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. The end of formal colonialism is usually dated to the mid-1800s for the Western Hemisphere, and the mid-1900s for the Eastern. Such activities have continued since the fall of the USSR. Europe was attracted by the riches of Asia, but had few products that it could trade for Asian goods. At the time of colonization, Europe was much more densely populated than the Americas. Conquest, De-population, and Re-population [link]. A huge variety of theories have been proposed to explain why certain countries have come to dominate the world economy. The colonizers then favored the "higher" races, placing them in positions of power. But European settlement was particularly heavy in areas that have come to be known as neo-Europes -- Canada, the US, Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay in the Americas, as well as South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Epidemics will tend to kill the people who are most susceptible, preventing them from passing on their genes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Acquisition of deadly diseases from animals continues today, with recent concerns over bird flu and swine flu. Sundberg, J. either the copyright owner or a person authorized to act on their behalf. A disease that is too slow to infect new victims will disappear, as everyone who has it dies or gets better without passing it on to new victims. Asian manufacturing was much more productive than that of Europe. Origins of the Modern World System [link]. So is Iceland. The Indian Ocean in Eurasian and African world-systems before the Sixteenth Century. If there was nothing but ocean between Europe and China, the sailing ships available in Europe at the time could not make the voyage. means of the most recent email address, if any, provided by such party to Varsity Tutors. Common definition: A language that facilitates communication or trade between people who speak different native languages. Send your complaint to our designated agent at: Charles Cohn and hopefully the two blogs will match up. Numerous colonies still exist today -- for example, the US controls places such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and some native activists argue that Hawaii is more colony than state. Colonialism: Colonialism refers to the act of a group of people from one nation going to other parts of the world and forming settlements. information described below to the designated agent listed below. Lacking access to colonies put a strain on China's production. 2009. An identification of the copyright claimed to have been infringed; ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. Britain also established a free-market doctrine that undercut India's social support programs (Davis 2001). Colonialism and the rise of capitalism. But the underlying tensions did not go away, and they erupted once the colonizer was pushed out -- as we can see today in Nigeria (Comfort 2002) and Kenya (Daily Nation 2010). Second, the trans-Atlantic slave trade was highly racialized. But in fact this is a myth, invented by storyteller Washington Irving in 1828. None of these are the sort of herd animals that commonly pass diseases to humans (Diamond 1997). 3. … This is a simple matter of evolutionary biology. In Peru, Francisco Pizarro defeated the Incas by taking advantage of a civil war that broke out when a disease (probably smallpox as well) killed the emperor Huayna Capac and his designated heir, Ninan Cuyochi. Indochina, a region that now includes the modern-day countries of Vietnam and Cambodia, was ruled by which of these Empires until the decolonization period that followed World War II? These raw materials fed the manufacturers of Europe, easing resource constraints that had grown as Europe's economy expanded. During the colonial era, Europeans came to believe that the people of an entire continent were fit only to work at the behest of superior types of humans (Sundberg 2008). Start studying Colonialism (APHG Unit 3). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. New York: Oxford University Press. It emphasized maintaining a favorable balance of trade and the accumulation of precious metals. Frenkel, Stephen. Colonialism is a process by which a country takes over new land, and reorganizes that land's economy to benefit the colonizing power, rather than to benefit the residents of the colony. In one sense, colonization reduced conflict among colonized populations, as the colonizer's military power imposed peace, e.g. La Crónica del Perú. The important idea here is that long-distance trade is not carried on for the equal benefit of all parties. As historian Janet Abu-Lughod put it, "the 'fall of the East' preceded the 'Rise of the West'" (Abu-Lughod 1989). Spell. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Example Questions . And disease spread quicker than European explorers and conquerors. Slave traders naturally preferred able-bodied young men and women, who were the productive backbone of pre-slave-trade African economies. Other areas of the colonies were less climatically similar to Europe, but they produced many of the most important commodities such as sugar and tobacco. Explanation: “Environmental determinism” is a theory of cultural geography that states that cultural traditions, and the differences between various cultures, are informed by environmental concerns.This had racial connotations during the age of European colonialism. The semiperiphery is composed of areas in between the core and periphery. In what is now Massachusetts, the generosity of the Wampanoags to the arriving Pilgrims was not merely a matter of altruism. In practice this meant stripping the colonies of their raw resources, bringing them back to Europe, and either storing them or using them in manufacturing. on or linked-to by the Website infringes your copyright, you should consider first contacting an attorney. Techniques ranging from aid packages with strings attached, to direct military intervention, were used to install friendly regimes, with little regard to the consequences for the prosperity of the people in the countries in question (Faber 2002). Raiding neighboring villages or even selling off members of your own tribe served as insurance against becoming a victim of the slave trade yourself -- sell them before they sell you (Nunn and Wantchekon 2009). But they also lose potential mineral wealth, and have to deal with pollution from the mine. For now, we can summarize by saying that some people argued that the temperate climate of Europe was invigorating to its inhabitants, whereas tropical climates in much of the rest of the world made people lazy and sensual (Frenkel 1992). Prior to that, other regions of the world, specifically China and India, could be considered the core (Frank 1998). Those who saw the harm in this internalization then reacted by simply flipping to the other side and rejecting anything that allegedly carried the taint of the colonizer. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Examples of Empires. Irredentism refers to the belief that territory outside a given state should be made part of the state due to a large amount of people living there of the same ethnicity as live in the state in question or due to the state having historically been in possession of the territory. Whilst Algeria accounts for a little over one-percent of French trade (making it relatively insignificant to France), France accounts for a quarter of Algerian trade (making it extremely significant to Algeria). Add To Calendar; Details ; About the Units. Basic and Non-Basic Industries. We will discuss environmental determinism in detail later. Colonial Riches and the Asian Trade [link]. The bluntest instrument was to simply seize land and convert it into plantations run by Europeans. The Scramble for Africa. The international borders of African countries are a legacy of colonialism. misrepresent that a product or activity is infringing your copyrights. Popular culture portrays Columbus as having the insight that the world was round -- and thus that China could be reached by sailing westward -- while his ignorant contemporaries insisted the world was flat. Over time, only the genes conferring high resistance to the disease will be left. European powers moved quickly to establish plantations in the Caribbean and nearby parts of the mainland to grow sugar, tobacco, and cotton, among other products. And it undermined African economies. Describe the concept of a superimposed boundary. Journal of World History 16 (4): 411-465. This distinction remains important to this day, even since independence, because it represents a cultural and linguistic distinction. Language ex³nc³on, both currently and throughout history, has been a major concern for cultural geographers, linguists, anthropologists, and other academics. This often leads to mistreatment of the original inhabitants, degradation of the local environment, and introduction of previously unknown diseases. The Domino Theory. This was most notable during the Cold War between the US and USSR. But the trans-Atlantic slave trade differed in several crucial ways. a 2001. Introduction of diseases into "virgin" territory, Mass migration of colonized peoples into the colonizing country. In The Environmental Justice Reader: Politics, Poetics, and Pedagogy, eds. Post-Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism [link]. Native Americans were often skilled fighters, and they quickly took up European weaponry, but they remained largely dependent on trade with European allies to keep up in the arms race. your copyright is not authorized by law, or by the copyright owner or such owner’s agent; (b) that all of the Ships sailing in the Mediterranean were blocked by the African, Arabian, and central Asian land masses, the rulers of which could limit trade or extract taxes from merchants. Note how this resembles the recent spike in Mexican tortilla prices in response to US ethanol demand. The pre-European population of the Americas is estimated to have been somewhere in the range of 40 to 80 million, but the population was reduced to only 6 million by 1650 (Denevan 1992). Wallerstein’s World System’s Theory divides the world into core nations and periphery nations, which closely parallels neocolonial ideas. So the colonial rulers brought about two major migration streams: settlers from Europe, and slaves from Africa. Britain and other powers extracted tax breaks and special deals as well as trade monopolies over certain regions. "The West" is a vague term roughly corresponding with the developed world or global North, excluding Asian countries such as Japan and South Korea. As geographers, we are interested in the way that the spatial arrangement of societies may influence the development of economic systems. Explain the degree to which globalization can explain the loss of indigenous languages in Africa since the 1970s. But the granting of formal independence did not necessarily end the economic … As trade routes began to grow again, European rulers and merchants committed themselves to capturing more of the trade surplus -- to becoming less of a semiperiphery and more of a core part of the world economic system. In any widespread economic system, a division into a core, semiperiphery, and periphery can emerge. If Varsity Tutors takes action in response to The American Prospect, April 28. European trade goods, particularly guns, quickly became necessities. We can begin to trace the causes of "the rise of the West" in the 1200s. Rather, tobacco was transported from the Americas, particularly from the American colonies, to Europe. The Americas, on the other hand, had huge untapped deposits of silver. So as the American colonies began to gain their independence, European colonial efforts shifted to the east (Figure 5). The solution was simple: Britain banned India from exporting textiles. Colonialism involves a powerful nation sending settlers to permanently live in another land under the originating nation's control. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. “Mercantilism” was the prevailing economic theory during the first few centuries of European expansion and colonialism. 2. Part A: 1 point total. 1993. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Learn. But economic historians have also identified long-lasting waves of economic growth and decline, lasting several hundred years. Yet at the same time, the increased economic activity generated by the influx of American silver and other resources, as well as a population boom fueled by new American crops like potatoes and maize, was causing the economies of China and India -- the old cores -- to expand too (Frank 1998). Colonial rulers charged native people taxes that must be paid in cash -- in contrast to native rulers, who had accepted payment in grain, hides, or other products. Your name, address, telephone number and email address; and For a disease to persist in a population, it needs to strike a balance between being too virulent and not virulent enough (Dobson and Carper 1994). Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Examples of colonialism include the ancient Greek colonization of Sicily, the Spanish colonization of South America, the Viking colonization of Normandy and the British colonization of Australia. One long-popular theory was race: Europeans, and their descendants elsewhere in the world, were said to be simply more intelligent and harder-working (Kobayashi 2003). Silent Violence: Food, Famine and Peasantry in Northern Nigeria. In Rwanda, for example, the sharp (and allegedly racial) divide between Hutus and Tutsis, and the privileging of the Tutsis that formed the basis of Hutu resentment, were created by the Germans and Belgians during their rule (Mamdani 2001). Three Types of Empires. While Asians had little interest in Europe's poorer-quality textiles, ceramics, etc., settlers in European colonies had little choice but to buy them. Struggle in Ogoniland: Ken Saro-Wiwa and the cultural politics of environmental justice. Colonizing powers used a variety of techniques to shift economic activity toward cash cropping and resource extraction (e.g. Krech, S. 1999. Example: Spanish colonialism in the west. The pristine myth: the landscape of the Americas in 1492. We can think of World Systems Theory as making several core propositions (Frank 1998, Chase-Dunn and Hall 1997): 1. Comfort, Susan. Transportation of which of the following was NOT part of the Atlantic Triangular Trade of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries between the Americas (American colonies and the Caribbean), Europe, and Africa? New international division of labor. More specifically, we know that the industrial revolution began in the English Midlands, and spread first to the rest of Europe and North America. For example, imagine what happens when a mining company opens a new mine in Papua New Guinea. This theory too has been discredited, as no evidence exists to support it. Davis, Mike. link to the specific question (not just the name of the question) that contains the content and a description of New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Brautigam, Deborah. It was Europe that stumbled upon them simply because Europe was located much closer to the Americas than China or India were. Colonialism works to funnel wealth back to the colonizer while inhibiting the development of the colony. In Handbook of Cultural Geography, eds. Thus, if you are not sure content located Europe had benefited from being connected to the large Afro-Eurasian landmass, giving it access to the technological ingenuity of a large population of people, and creating competition that drove those people to devise new technologies for projecting power over new lands. At this time, most of the Eastern Hemisphere -- from Britain to Japan, and from Russia to Zimbabwe -- was connected in one large trade network (Abu-Lughod 1989), shown in Figure 2. Geography, empire, and environmental determinism. Weber, Max. B. A revolution in environmental justice and sustainable development: the political ecology of Nicaragua. On the economic front, political independence did little for countries still dependent on a global economic system in which the shots were called and the profits made in London, Paris, or New York. Wallerstein's World System Theory. In his first assault on the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, Hernán Cortéz's forces -- armed with guns, swords, steel armor, and war horses -- were defeated by the Aztecs. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Dobson, Andrew P., and E. Robin Carper. But Europe's advantages in military technology alone would have been insufficient to guarantee victory. 5 Shapes of Countries. 2. The world economy has a three-tier structure. AP Human Geography: Political Geography Vocabulary. If they succeeded in their economic endeavors, people would take that as proof that they were favored by God and thus likely to be among those predestined for Heaven (Weber 1904). It is much easier for a disease to hit this sweet spot in a large, dense population. London: Verso. First, it led to efforts by colonizers to wipe out or prevent the practice of native cultural traditions. The formation of some of the early trans-regional economic linkages can be dated to as early as 3000 BCE, when the Sumerians living in what is now Iraq traded with Egypt and the Harappan civilization in what is now Pakistan (Frank and Gills 1992). This helps to solidify control of the colony. 1904. •Example: people may choose to move because of a major problem that almost forces them to move •Example: people may feel they will eventually be forced to move, so they voluntarily move . 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